COVID-19
Managing Budgetary Pressures in Africa

Public Finance Response Monitor

The COVID-19 Africa Public Finance Response Monitor provides an overview of expected financing gaps posed by COVID-19 and how African governments are responding to these through expenditure reprioritisation, efficiency gains, resource mobilisation, social assistance, business support, and monetary and macrofinancial policy measures. It also provides information on health financing in Africa (as a proxy of pandemic preparedness) and up-to-date statistics of confirmed COVID-19 cases, tests and deaths. The COVID-19 Africa Public Finance Response Monitor includes a subset of actions taken by governments and does not aim to provide a full picture of the quantitative measures undertaken. Confirmed cases, tests and deaths will be updated daily and response measures will be updated weekly.

Algeria

Tests p/million
77
Confirmed cases
9513
Confirmed deaths
661
Regulatory response and containment strategy
Since early February, the authorities have been implementing containment measures. A lockdown of affected areas has been ordered and a curfew is in place in several cities including Algiers. The Algerian Government has since extended the lockdown until 14 May.

21 May: Lockdown restrictions, which had previously been eased to allow for certain economic activities to continue, have now been put in place once more due to a lack of observance of distancing protocols in the country.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
21 May: A comprehensive response plan of 70 billion dinars (USD 543 million) (0.3% of GDP) to mitigate the health and economic impacts of the COVID-19 crisis. This includes 3.7 billion for medical supplies, 16.5 billion for bonus payments to health workers, and 8.9 billion for the health sector’s development. For the economic impact, the law includes 20 billion for allowances to the unemployed because of COVID, and 11.5 billion for transfers to poor households.
Official COVID-19 links
http://covid19.sante.gov.dz/

http://www.premier-ministre.gov.dz/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
676
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
11%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
31%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
11%

Domestic and external financing


The IMF and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development have contributed USD 100 million and USD 32 million towards COVID-19 medical equipment and drugs, respectively.

The President of the Republic ordered the consecration of an amount of USD 100 million to accelerate the import of pharmaceutical products.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
On 15 March, Bank of Algeria lowered the reserve requirement ratio from 10% to 8%, and its main policy rate by 25 basis points to 3.25%.

On 6 April, the Bank of Algeria announced that it was easing solvency, liquidity and NPLs ratios for banks.

On April 30, the Bank of Algeria announced that it was cutting its main policy rate from 3.25 to 3.00 %, that it was lowering its reserve requirement ratio from 8 % to 6 %, and that it was lowering haircuts on government securities used in refinancing operations.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
30 April: Authorities banned exports of several products, including food, medical and hygiene items.

30 April: Within the framework of national measures and efforts aimed at preventing and fight against the spread of COVID19, the General Directorate of Customs has established a permanent national unit for prevention, monitoring and combating this virus at the level of the services of customs.

30 April: Contractual deadlines have been relaxed for those rendering services to the public sector. Penalties for companies that experience delays in completing public contracts have also been suspended.

On 3 May, at a meeting of the Council of Ministers, the Minister of Trade made a presentation on the digital system for the supervision and monitoring of the market supply of food and agricultural products in the context of the spread of the Covid-19 pandemic. This system aims to create a database to identify all the actors involved in the production and distribution of mass consumption products, determine production capacities and organise the distribution perimeter, and ensure periodic monitoring of storage levels at the national level for the public and private sectors.
Budget adjustments
End-March: In response to the oil price shock and COVID-19 pandemic, the government will lower recurrent spending by 30%, while keeping wages intact and protecting health and education spending. On 3 May, the Government stated that, instead of the original 30%, it would lower recurrent spending by 50%.

End-March: The authorities announced several measures to cut the import bill by at least USD 10 billion (6% of GDP).

10 May: Consideration is being given to a finance law, which seeks to frame a response to the coronavirus pandemic.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
end-March: Declaration and payments of taxes for small and medium enterprises have been postponed.
Worker and social assistance
End-March: Declaration and payments of income taxes for individuals have been postponed.

End-March: To avoid crowding in post offices, beneficiaries (1M) can receive Solidarity Allowance benefits at any time without a specific deadline.

End-March: In-kind distribution campaign of food and hygiene items to the most vulnerable families, including those living in isolated areas and impacted by the lockdown.

End-March: To reduce exposure for elderlies, a proxy letter can be delivered to another person to receive pensions/benefits in place of the beneficiary.

30 April: Ramadan allowance given to poor households has been increased from 6,000 to 10,000 dinars.

2 May: Despite the huge reduction in the budget, the government agreed to increase the minimum wage from USD 140 (18 000 dinars) per month to USD 156 (20 000 dinars) while income tax will be abolished for those earning 30 000 dinars or less, the statement said.

At the 3 May meeting of the Council of Ministers, there was discussion on reviving the National Agency for Support to the Employment of Young People (ANSEJ) through the "Restart Algeria" programme. This programme is a national development plan which will be the engine of global economic development and will provide a more legible picture of the situation of projects subsidised by the ANSEJ scheme, from its creation until the end of the year in courses, numbering 400,000 projects for an amount of 334 billion DA.


Angola

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
86
Confirmed deaths
4
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 27 March, a state of emergency commenced to 11 April and was extended by 2 weeks until 25 April. This includes compulsory confinement at home for everyone but essential services.

26 April: The state of emergency in Angola was extended by 15 days, with activities expected to continue in a staggered manner from 11 May.

8 May: The government of Angola approved the third state of emergency for another 15 days, starting on May 11.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
Official COVID-19 links
http://www.minsa.gov.ao/

http://www.governo.gov.ao/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
82
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
5,43%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
35%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
5,43%

Domestic and external financing
The Angolan sovereign wealth fund has agreed to offer USD 1.5 billion on condition of future repayments.

5 May: The UN has offered a grant of USD 12.5 Million to Angola in order to assist with Covid-19 relief
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
Issuance of Eurobond of USD 3 billion has been postponed due to unfavourable market conditions related to the coronavirus pandemic.

The Government has asked the National Bank of Angola to increase the rollover rate in domestic financing and encourage the INSS to purchase Treasury Bonds.

May 7: The Monetary Policy Committee in the National Bank of Angola brought forward its ordinary session to analyse the impact of Covid-19 in the economy and assess the use of monetary policy as a means to relieve pressure on the Angolan economy.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
Imports of some food, medicines and bio-safety materials will benefit from a temporary exemption on payment instrument limits, announced the National Bank of Angola, on publishing instruction no. 05/2020, of 30 March.

Suspension of exports of nationalized food, medicine and medical equipment, including those carried by the inhabitants of border areas.

A list of Covid-19 prevention and treatment medico-medicated goods subject to the regulated price regime has been released.

SADC Member States have established National Emergency Operations Centres to facilitate coordination of logistics and stockpiling for disasters at the national level. The SADC Pooled Procurement Services for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies is being implemented to provide sustainable availability and access to affordable and effective essential medicine and health commodities, and Member States have been encouraged to utilise this facility for the procurement of the needed supplies for prevention, treatment and control of COVID-19 and any other epidemics
Budget adjustments
In April, additional healthcare spending to mitigate corona virus, estimated at USD 40 million, was announced.

On 9 April, the Executive designed a set of immediate cost-cutting measures in a Presidential Decree that, including:
Freezing 30% of its goods and services budget and its CAPEX has been suspended pending completion of the budget review;
Suspension of all processes of new admissions and promotions in the Civil Service, with the exception of sectors previously approved, until the completion of the Budget Review;
Reduction of travel by Executive Members and Government Executive Delegations;
Redefinition and classification of the range of vehicles to be attributed to State managers and suspension of the acquisition of new vehicles for personal use;

22 April: the Minister of Finance stated that the execution of all government contracts whose source of funding has not been secured or whose goods/services are not of a priority to the structural integrity of the economy are to be suspended. This suspension does not apply to health, education, social action, logistical supply, sanitation and other previously-secured-fund-contracts with the state.
Transparency, accountability and participation
15 April: a website for Economic Relief (https://alivioeconomico.org/) has been recently launched by the Ministry of Economy and Planning. It is a digital tool that outlines the measures taken by the government to alleviate the negative impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the country’s economy. It provides information on tax relief, social security requirements, financing packages and some current expenditure to be carried out.

Business support and tax relief
The Ministry of Finance has proposed reducing the Industrial Tax, to give companies more resources to reinvest and thus renew their business.

Strengthening the capitalisation of the Credit Guarantee Fund.

Reinforcement of lines of credit to support business initiatives in the private sector.

Immediate operationalisation of credit to support food producers and start of the Rural Trade Program

Postponement of the removal of fuel subsidies to another financial year.

In an attempt to promote the oil sector amidst declining demand due to Covid-19, the parliament of Angola has adopted legislation which will grant tax benefits (a deduction of investment premiums on tax on income from oil) to specific oil blocks in the country.

Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the state will refrain from collecting 148 Bn Kwanzas in tax revenues from companies. The national institute of social security will also refrain from taking contributions of up to 29 Bn Kwanzas as a means to relieve companies paying social security benefits. This applies until the 10th of May 2020, and will be subject to applications from various companies.

11 May: Announcment of measures to ensure financial support to maintain minimum levels of activity of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in the manufacturing sector, through the consignment of around 448 billion kwanzas and the removal of some administrative procedures. These are mainly related to setting up companies, such as statistical registration and requests for a commercial permit to conduct certain activities.
Worker and social assistance
April 2020: applications for a moritorium on personal credit repayments have begun. These measures apply to personal creditors who have paid their required credit debt off by end of March 2020, and are now facing difficulties paying off credit thereafter. This moritorium will last 60 days.

Benin

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
243
Confirmed deaths
3
Regulatory response and containment strategy
The authorities established a sanitary cordon around the ten cities most exposed to the pandemic.

7 May 2020: The national lockdown was extended to the end of April 2020, before a subdued re-opening of economic activities.

On 11 May, economic activities and schooling have begun a gradual re-opening process.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
In March, a comprehensive mitigation and prevention plan is estimated at CFAF 60 billion (USD 100 million or 0.7% of GDP).

By April, the Government of Benin had prepared a COVID-19 response plan for USD 320 million (1.7% of GDP) to contain health risks and support the economy.
Official COVID-19 links
https://www.gouv.bj/coronavirus/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
17
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
3,72%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
43%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
3,72%

Domestic and external financing
Benin is included in the list of 25 nations to which the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has offered a pardon on debt servicing through the Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust. Benin will receive relief of USD 10.17 million

A COVID-19 Fund has been set up under the Minister of Economy and Finance.

15 May: The IMF Executive Board approved an immediate disbursement of USD 125.1 million to Benin to address the urgent financing needs stemming spread of COVID-19 and to mitigate its economic and social impacts.

20 May: Additional domestic financing relative to the budget plan of CFAF 65.4 billion (USD 109 million).
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
On March 21: The Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) announced the following measures: i) providing XOF 340 billion (USD 559 million) of additional liquidity made available to the banks by weekly and monthly auctions up to XOF 4 750 billion (USD 7,8 billion) ; ii) extending the collateral framework to access the BCEAO's refinancing to include XOF 1,050 billion (USD 1,7 billion) of bank debt of prequalified 1,700 private companies; iii) setting-up of a framework with the banking system to support firms with repayment difficulties.

On March 25: Further measures include: i) allocation of XOF 25 billion (USD 41 million) to the trust fund of the West African Development Bank (BOAD), in order to increase the amount of confessional loans to eligible countries to finance urgent investment and equipment expenses; ii) communicating of the special program for refinancing bank credits granted to SMEs; iii) initiating negotiations with firms issuing electronic money to encourage its usage; iv) ensuring adequate provision of banknotes for satisfactory ATM operations.

To promote the use of electronic payment tools the Western Africa Central Bank (BCEAO) is providing more flexible measures to open a mobile money and making transfers between people backed by electronic money free.

30 April: The regional central bank has also created "Covid-19 T-bills" as a means to raise funding during the pandemic.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
On April 27, Heads of states of the West-Africa Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) declared a temporary suspension of the WAEMU growth and stability Pact setting six convergence criteria, including the 3 % of GDP fiscal deficit rule, to help member-countries cope with the fallout of the Covid-19 pandemic, allowing member countries to raise fiscal deficits temporarily.

30 April: A committee with special powers to make resource allocation decisions has been created.

On 1 April: The government made protective masks available at the subsidized price of FCFA200 (USD 0,33).

30 April: The government has authorised its central purchasing office to make chloroquine available at a subsidized price.
Budget adjustments
By end-April, the mitigation and prevention measures taken so far by the authorities amount to CFAF 10 billion (about USD 17 million or 0.1 % of GDP).
Transparency, accountability and participation
20 May: The authorities are committed to conducting an audit of their response plan next year, which will be independently carried out by the Accounting Chamber and made available to the public on its website. The authorities will also publish the procurement contracts of the main projects, indicating their amount and beneficiaries.

Business support and tax relief
Faced with office closures in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Government of Benin has made it possible for entrepreneurs to create their company online. The online single window, monentreprise.bj, can be accessed from the country or abroad and allows a company to be created within two hours. Prior to this the process took one day and involved several physical visits to APIEx, Benin’s investment and export agency. This development means that despite the economic challenges faced by the economy of Benin from the pandemic, and the unprecedented closure of government offices, 138 new businesses were created in the first week of operations, from 16 to 22 March.
Worker and social assistance

Botswana

Tests p/million
1325
Confirmed cases
38
Confirmed deaths
1
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 2 April, A State of Public Health Emergency commenced.

On 7 May, the government stated that lockdown restrictions (which would have been eased on May 8) are now to be extended to May 22.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
1 March: The authorities anticipate spending of around P500 million (USD 42 million of 2.4% of GDP).

25 March: Presidential Directive directed the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development to urgently mobilise P2 billion (USD 166 million or 10% of GDP) through transfers from Special Funds and appropriation from the Consolidated Fund and that the funds be paid into the COVID19 Relief Fund. The Fund will cover provision of psychosocial support to all those affected, support workers, stabilise businesses and ensure availability of strategic supplies and explore opportunities for economic diversification.
Official COVID-19 links
https://cms1.gov.bw/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
521
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
9,15%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
5,25%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
9,15%

Domestic and external financing
On 31 March President Masisi announced that an economic stimulus package is being developed to buffer the impact of COVID-19.

Cabinet members have pledged 10% of their salaries to the relief fund for a period of six months. The amount comes up to about USD 14,000 per month and USD 84,000 over the six-month period.

Judges of the High Court, and Justices of the Court of Appeal have unanimously agreed to contribute 5% of their basic salary towards the Relief Fund.

Monetary and macrofinancial measures
The Bank of Botswana has received commitments from commercial banks to reduce charges for digital transactions by at least 25%. In addition, limits on mobile money transactions have been raised.

The prudential capital adequacy ratio for banks operating in Botswana has been reduced from 15 to 12.5%

Banks and nonbank offerors of credit have agreed to offer loan restructuring (including for mortgages and vehicles) and payment holidays for affected sectors as of end of April 2020.

On April 30, the Monetary Policy Committee of the Bank of Botswana announced that it would reduce the bank rate by 0.5%, from 4.75% to 4.25%. It also reduced its reserve rate from 5% to 2.5% in order to improve liquidity.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
30 April: All Government institutions will pay purchase orders within 5 days and parastatals will pay within 24 hours. Measures have been taken to improve the efficiency of procurement processes. Government will pay all outstanding arrears for invoices within 2 weeks.

30 April: The COVID-19 Economic Advisory Committee has been evaluating the potential economic impact on Botswana, and has prepared a package of interventions designed to mitigate that impact and provide some support to businesses and households, consistent with available fiscal space.

SADC Member States have established National Emergency Operations Centres to facilitate coordination of logistics and stockpiling for disasters at the national level. The SADC Pooled Procurement Services for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies is being implemented to provide sustainable availability and access to affordable and effective essential medicine and health commodities, and Member States have been encouraged to utilise this facility for the procurement of the needed supplies for prevention, treatment and control of COVID-19 and any other epidemics.

30 April: Botswana Innovation Hub, through its annual innovation fund, called for proposals from entrepreneurs to address challenges in public health systems, public service delivery, transportation and payments, logistics and value chains.
Budget adjustments
On 24 April, Finance Minister Matsheka noted projected revenue will fall from P62.4 billion to 48 billion (22% decline). He said government has revised the budget by doing away with conferences, and deferring salary increment for public servants, which was supposed to come into effect on April 1, 2020. The deferment will last for at least six months. Total expenditure has been revised downward by P8 billion from P59.6 billion.

By 24 April, the Ministry of Health submitted a request of P 2 472 700 995 (USD 202 million), for laboratory commodities, personal protective clothing and equipment, medicines, linen, accommodation for people on quarantine and operational costs. The government approved a part of this request.
Transparency, accountability and participation
On 8 May, The Ministry of Finance and Economic Development informed the public that for transparency and accountability purposes, all name of companies and organisations that have benefitted from the Government wage subsidy for April have been published on the Ministry of Finance Website.

Business support and tax relief
To give businesses cash-flow relief, Government, through the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development will:
• Guarantee loans by commercial banks to businesses most affected by COVID-19;
• Give eligible businesses affected by COVID-19 access to credit to support ongoing operations in conditions where credit becomes more difficult to obtain and;
• Give tax concessions to businesses in eligible sectors.
• VAT refunds to businesses will be expedited to assist with cash flow.

• Banks have agreed to offer restructuring of loan facilities through which each bank will consider each case within their credit policy and parameters. This will include owner-occupied residential property mortgages and motor vehicle loans;
• All commercial banks will offer a payment holiday for 3 months with the option to extend to six (6) months to the affected sectors;
• Regular payment obligations including life insurance premium payment, retirement fund contributions and loan instalments will be restructured and rescheduled to offer relief for at least three months to COVID-19 affected people subject to individual policies.

May 7: The government has established a 2 Billion Pula (1.1% of GDP) Covid relief fund aimed at financing a waiver on the mandatory company skills levy, as well as creating a government-backed guarantee fund from which tax-compliant businesses can obtain credit guarantees over the next 2 years. VAT refund periods have also been decreased from 60 to 21 days in the country
Worker and social assistance
Government will provide a wage subsidy for citizen employees of businesses mostly affected by COVID-19, to enable them to retain employees.

On 24 April, it was announced that P 114 million (USD 9,34 million) was approved for food hampers for April and P 26 million (USD 2,1 millionI for temporary social workers. 100 water tanks were acquired to bring 5000 litres of water for those without water connections.

Social security contributions have been rescheduled to a later date for at least three months from the end of April 2020.

May 7: The government has established a 2 Billion Pula (USD 164 million or 1.1% of GDP) Covid relief fund aimed at subsidising wages (approximately 50% of all affected workers) over a period of 3 months.

Burkina Faso

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
847
Confirmed deaths
53
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 26 March, a Public Health Emergency was declared with nationwide curfews and quarantine for major cities.

Between 20 April and 2 May, restrictions on movement and working have been eased slightly in some parts of the country. Those cities with 1 or less positive Covid-19 cases have had lockdown regulations lifted more so than others
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
FCFA 394 billion (USD 650 million) 4,45 % of GDP. This amount includes the overall health response plan, which amounts to approximately FCFA 178 billion (USD 293 million).
Official COVID-19 links
https://www.facebook.com/finances.gov.bf/

https://www.sante.gov.bf/corona-virus

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
46
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
11%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
31%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
11%

Domestic and external financing
On 14 April, SDR 84.28 million was provided by the IMF through its Rapid Credit Facility.

23 April: the authorities are discussing exceptional financing from the members of the Alliance pour le Sahel, African Development Bank (USD 10 million), China (USD 1.2 million, in-kind grant) and France. The authorities also plan to mobilize additional financing from regional bodies, including the Western African Development Bank (BOAD). The authorities would seek to fill any remaining financing gap by tapping into regional bond market.

end-April: Burkina Faso is included in the list of 25 nations to which the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has offered a pardon on debt servicing through the Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust. By 7 May, Burkina Faso had been offered USD 11.96 million worth of relief from the IMF.

28 April: The European Union has announced additional support to Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger, of 194 million Euros. This comes after the EU pledged to mobilise 449 million Euros earlier on in April for the same 5 countries.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
On March 21: The Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) announced the following measures: i) providing XOF 340 billion of additional liquidity made available to the banks by weekly and monthly auctions up to XOF 4750 billion; ii) extending the collateral framework to access the BCEAO's refinancing to include XOF 1,050 billion of bank debt of prequalified 1,700 private companies; iii) setting-up of a framework with the banking system to support firms with repayment difficulties.

On March 25: Further measures include: i) allocation of XOF 25 billion to the trust fund of the West African Development Bank (BOAD), in order to increase the amount of confessional loans to eligible countries to finance urgent investment and equipment expenses; ii) communicating of the special program for refinancing bank credits granted to SMEs; iii) initiating negotiations with firms issuing electronic money to encourage its usage; iv) ensuring adequate provision of banknotes for satisfactory ATM operations.

To promote the use of electronic payment tools the Western Africa Central Bank (BCEAO) is providing more flexible measures to open a mobile money and making transfers between people backed by electronic money free.

30 April: The regional central bank has also created "Covid-19 T-bills" as a means to raise funding during the pandemic.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
On April 27, Heads of states of the West-Africa Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) declared a temporary suspension of the WAEMU growth and stability Pact setting six convergence criteria, including the 3 % of GDP fiscal deficit rule, to help member-countries cope with the fallout of the Covid-19 pandemic, allowing member countries to raise fiscal deficits temporarily.
Budget adjustments
On 2 April, the authorities announced plans to revise the 2020 budget to address the socio-economic impacts of the outbreak. Several measures are under consideration, including, among others: (i) lowering import duties and VAT for hygiene and healthcare goods and services critical to tackle COVID-19, and for tourism businesses; (ii) lowering other selected tax rates; (iii) delaying tax payments, and waiving late payment fines and penalties; (iv) granting exemptions to micro enterprises in the informal sector; (v) lowering the licensing fee for companies in the transportation and tourism sectors; (vi) suspending on-site tax inspection operations; (vii) Donating food and providing assistance to households and local small businesses; (viii) supporting the water and electricity bills, including through cancelation, of the most vulnerable social groups; and (ix) securing adequate stocks of consumer products and strengthening surveillance of prices. An emergency response plan for the health sector has been prepared.
Transparency, accountability and participation
21 May: The authorities have taken measures to transparently track resources and expenditures related to the pandemic, including by opening new accounts at the central bank specific for COVID-related accounts. Periodic report on these accounts will be produced.

Business support and tax relief
Many tax measures have been announced until June 2020, including tax exemption of small businesses, postponement of penalties for companies which have fallen foul of their tax obligations, reduction in licence payments and suspension of Management Learning Tax for transport companies and hotels.

An economic recovery fund has been established for affected companies in the amount of FCFA 100 billion (USD 164 million). Agricultural supplies and feed have been acquired for support of food and pastoral production, worth FCFA 30 billion (USD 49 million).
Worker and social assistance
Until June 2020, the Government has promised to cover water bills, some electricity bills, reduction in cost of solar kits for vulnerable households, and strengthening of price controls.

A solidarity fund has been established for the informal sector, especially for women, for the renewal of trade activities in vegetables and fruits, worth FCFA 5 billion (USD 8 million).

Burundi

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
63
Confirmed deaths
1
Regulatory response and containment strategy
None
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
On 24 March, the COVID-19 contingency plan was estimated at USD 14.5 million (0.5 % of GDP). By 1 April 2020, the required funding estimate increased to USD 26 million (approx 0.9% GDP). The cost is anticipated to rise rapidly with the number of cases.
Official COVID-19 links
http://minisante.bi/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
15
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
8,50%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
25%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
8,50%

Domestic and external financing
On 14 April, the World Bank approved a USD 5 million grant from the International Development Association to respond to the threat posed by COVID-19 and strengthen national systems for public health preparedness in Burundi.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
Budget adjustments
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
Worker and social assistance

Cabo Verde

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
458
Confirmed deaths
4
Regulatory response and containment strategy
In late March, a State of Emergency was declared. This put in place social distancing and stay-at-home measures, and restricted traffic between the nine inhabited islands.

On 5 May, only 2 of the 9 islands (Boa Vista and Santiago) remained in a state of emergency, while lockdown restrictions for the other 7 islands have been relaxed.

On 13 May, the government extended the State of Emergency for the island of Santiago. Lockdown restrictions were removed for the island of Boa Vista.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
16 April: Health and social protection measures related to COVID-19 are estimated at 1.2% of GDP.
Official COVID-19 links
https://www.minsaude.gov.cv/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
197
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
9,89%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
26%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
9,89%

Domestic and external financing
On 2 April, the World Bank approved a USD 5 million credit from the International Development Association.

On 24 April, the IMF approved a loan of USD 32.3 million to Cabo Verde, at an interest rate of 0%. This has been made available as direct budget support.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
The Bank of Cabo Verde (BCV) has approved a package of measures for stimulation and mitigation of the impact of coronavirus on the country’s economy, under the terms of which the banking sector will have to provide over 1,4 billion.

The benchmark interest rate by was reduced from 1.5% to 0.25% to set off a quicker and deeper response by the banks, without compromising or causing insecurity in key segments of financing of the credit institutions.

Another stimulus is the drop in the rate of the permanent loan liquidity facility from 3% to 0.5%, to signal to commercial banks that the central bank will provide funds in situations of a lack of bank liquidity.

A new long-term liquidity instrument has been introduced to finance banks over periods of up to three years and to set an attractive interest rate of 0.75%, for the extended credit line. The BCV also announced a credit line for banks at an interest rate of 0.75%, up to 45 billion

Finally, a reduction in Minimum Cash Availability from 13% to 10%, is another measure announced to “strongly” encourage banks to capitalise liquidity freed up for credit to the economy.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
Budget adjustments
Given estimates that revenue may halve due primarily to a significant reduction in tourism, the government announced on 26 March, that it will put forward a revised budget and set new priorities for public investment to guarantee that families have employment and income.

In April, authorities announced they will reallocate budget of CVE 76 million (USD 748 000) to an emergency plan. These resources will help cover additional expenses for personnel, training and medical equipment.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
Micro, small, medium and large enterprises and individuals will have a moratorium that will postpone loan payments until 30 September home loans, and other loans, provided they prove they do not have an income or their income has been significantly affected by this pandemic.

The government has launched State-backed lines of credit of USD 7.6 million to boost liquidity of companies during the pandemic.
Worker and social assistance
Expansion of cash transfers to 8,000 families (from original 5,000).

Support for workers in micro and small enterprises and self-employed in the informal sector, including sellers of informal commerce and municipal markets. These workers are guaranteed a value of 10,000 escudos (USD 100) for one month. 30,000 workers are expected to benefit.

Immediate Food Assistance to 22,500 families (around 90,000 people), whose income is below the minimum wage or without any source of income Support for school feeding for around 30,000 children who belong to the most vulnerable households.

Households and firms that borrow from banks will, according to a decision announced by the Central Bank of Cabo Verde, have a three-month moratorium on payment of debt instalments. Employees will get 70% of gross salary in the event of the labor contract
being suspended. 35% will be paid by the employer and 35% by INPS
(National Institute of Social Security).

On 5 May, the prime minister of Cabo Verde has announced that 2.6 million masks will be made available across the country to mitigate the spread of Covid-19. This will form part of the basic basket of goods which the government is set to provide familites who are not able to afford their own essentials.

Cameroon

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
6397
Confirmed deaths
199
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 17 March, the government announced a package of 13 containment measures.

On 30 April, the government announced that lockdown restrictions would be gradually eased
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
The authorities’ initial preparedness and response plan projected COVID-19-related health spending to reach CFAF 25.5 billion (USD 11 million) over the next three months ( 0.1 % of GDP).

May 7: this projection has increased to CFAF 58.3 billion (USD 100 million, or 0.44% of GDP) over the next three months.

21 May: Updated estimates of the Covid-19 Preparedness and Response Plan prepared by the Cameroonian government have increased to USD 600 millon.

Official COVID-19 links
https://www.minsante.cm/site/?q=en/epid-mie-de-coronavirus-covid---19-

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
23
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
2,95%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
70%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
2,95%

Domestic and external financing
A Solidarity Fund has been established with seed money from Government of 1 billion CFA (USD 1.6 million).

4 May 2020: Cameroon has received USD 226 million from the Rapid Credit Facility of the IMF.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
On March 24, 2020, BEAC announced that it will suspend its main absorption operations on the monetary market for the coming week in order to better assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on banking liquidity in CEMAC. However, banks with financing needs will be able to satisfy their requests at the marginal lending facility under the usual conditions. Further measures are expected to be taken following the Monetary Policy Committee meeting scheduled on March 27.

From 25 March, MTN Cameroon suspended payment of fees on money transfers between MTN Mobile Money accounts. This measure suspending the payment of fees concerns money transfers for amounts up to 20,000 FCFA. The measure will be limited to 3 transactions per day, per account, and will be valid for a period of 30 days. This may be reviewed based on the evolution of the health crisis.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
30 April: To ensure continuity of its services amid the coronavirus health crisis, Cameroon’s single window for foreign trade (GUCE) deployed digital and telecommuting platforms.

30 April: Simplified procedures have been put in place for procurement.

30 April: Pending establishment of a special appropriations account to receive and manage all resources made available by funders and the State for Covid-19.

30 April: Pending establishment of sectoral units in all ministerial departments for monitoring and management of funds.

30 April: Medical supplies will soon be exempt from custom duties and taxes.

30 April: A supplementary budget is under development.
Budget adjustments
30 April: Non-oil related revenues down by CFAF 106,9 billion (USD 175 million). Oil revenue down by CFAF 70,5 billion (USD 115 million) relative to the 2020 Finance Act.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
On 30 April, the president announced various tax exemptions and moratoria for businesses impacted by Covid-19 (especially in the tourism and catering industry)
Worker and social assistance
On 30 April, the president announced (1) an increase in the family allowance/grant from CFAF 2500 (USD 4,11) per month to CFAF 4500 (USD 7,44) ; (2) an increase of pensions by 20% to those who did not benefit from the 2016 pension reform; (3) the payment of social securities to staff of companies that are not able to do so given the impact of Covid-19 on their economic standing, and; (4) spreading the payment of social security into 3 tranches until June.

Central African Republic

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
1069
Confirmed deaths
4
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On May 4, CAR authorities adopted a response plan aimed at enacting social distancing measures as well as closing borders, schools and most public establishments (with a ban on public gatherings exceeding 15 people).
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
27 billion FCFA (USD 45 million) (1.9 % of GDP). This plan goes beyond an immediate response plan and contains measures to strengthen the ability of the healthcare system to deal with such pandemics in the future. It notably aims at: (i) providing medical care of confirmed cases; (ii) improving the monitoring of the country’s points of entry; and (iii) strengthening the capacities of the medical staff, laboratories and hospitals.
Official COVID-19 links

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
4,44
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
5,06%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
43%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
5,06%

Domestic and external financing
USD 6.9 million has been provided by the World Bank's COVID-19 Preparedness and Response Project. This will finance activities related to preparedness, capacity building, and coordination, communication, community engagement, case management and response.

CAR is included in the list of 25 nations to which the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has offered a pardon on debt servicing through the Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust. On April 13, this debt service relief was announced to be USD 4.05 million.

20 April: The IMF has extended credit to CAR through its Rapid Financing Instrument of USD 38 million.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
On March 27, 2020, BEAC announced a set of monetary easing measures including a decrease of the policy rate by 25 bps to 3.25 %, a decrease of the Marginal Lending Facility rate by 100 bps to 5 %, a suspension of absorption operations, an increase of liquidity provision from FCFA 240 to 500 billion (USD 395 to 823 million), and a widening of the range of private instruments accepted as collateral in monetary operations. The MPC also supported BEAC’s management’s intent to propose to reduce haircuts applicable to private instruments accepted as collateral for refinancing operations, and to postpone by one-year principal repayment of consolidated central bank’s credits to member states, but these possible additional measures are not effective yet. On March 25, 2020, the COBAC informed banks that they can use their capital conservation buffers of 2.5 % to absorb pandemic-related losses but requested banks to adopt a restrictive policy with regard to dividend distribution. (Completed, 2020-05-07)

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
Budget adjustments
Announced response plan for the health sector that was prepared in strong collaboration with the WHO, with an estimated cost of 27 billion of FCFA (1.9 percent of GDP). This plan goes beyond an immediate response plan and contains measures to strengthen the ability of the healthcare system to deal with such pandemics in the future. It notably aims at: (i) providing medical care of confirmed cases; (ii) improving the monitoring of the country’s points of entry; and (iii) strengthening the capacities of the medical staff, laboratories and hospitals.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
Worker and social assistance

Chad

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
790
Confirmed deaths
66
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 2 April, curfews were announced in the provinces of West Logone, East Logone, West Mayo Kebbi, Mayo Kebbi and in the city of N'Djamena, from 7pm to 6am.

May 7: Lockdown regulations were extended to May 15, with some cities and provinces experiencing less stringent lockdown conditions due to low Covid-19 incidence in those cities.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
On 7 May, it was announced that financing for COVID-19 health-related expenditure will exceed the estimated CFAF 15 billion (USD 24 million or 0.3 % of non-oil GDP) and are expected to reach CFAF 31 billion (USD 51 million 0.6 % of non-oil GDP), which are being implemented under a national contingency plan.
Official COVID-19 links
https://sante-tchad.org/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
18
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
5,90%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
61%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
5,90%

Domestic and external financing
On 14 April, SDR 84.12 million (USD 114 million) was provided by the IMF through its Rapid Credit Facility.

Chad is included in the list of 25 nations to which the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has offered a pardon on debt servicing through the Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust.

14 April: the amount of credit support offered by the IMF to Chad amounts to USD 115.1 million.

29 April: The World Bank has agreed to a financing agreement with Chad of USD 16.95 million.

28 April: The European Union has announced additional support to Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger, of 194 million Euros. This comes after the EU pledged to mobilise 449 million Euros earlier on in April for the same 5 countries.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
On March 24, 2020, BEAC announced that it will suspend its main absorption operations on the monetary market for the coming week in order to better assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on banking liquidity in CEMAC. However, banks with financing needs will be able to satisfy their requests at the marginal lending facility under the usual conditions. Further measures are expected to be taken following the Monetary Policy Committee meeting scheduled on March 27.

On March 27, 2020, BEAC announced a set of monetary easing measures including a decrease of the policy rate by 25 bps to 3.25 %, a decrease of the Marginal Lending Facility rate by 100 bps to 5 %, a suspension of absorption operations, an increase of liquidity provision from FCFA 240 to 500 billion (USD 395 to 823 million), and a widening of the range of private instruments accepted as collateral in monetary operations. The MPC also supported BEAC’s management’s intent to propose to reduce haircuts applicable to private instruments accepted as collateral for refinancing operations, and to postpone by one-year principal repayment of consolidated central bank’s credits to member states, but these possible additional measures are not effective yet. On March 25, 2020, the COBAC informed banks that they can use their capital conservation buffers of 2.5 % to absorb pandemic-related losses but requested banks to adopt a restrictive policy with regard to dividend distribution.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
A committee with special powers to make resource allocation decisions has been created.
Budget adjustments
An estimated CFAF 15 billion (USD 24 million) (0.3 % of non-oil GDP) of fiscal measures have been approved and are being implemented. Key measures include: (i) training of medical and technical staff, (ii) purchase of necessary medical equipment, (iii) construction of seven health centers in remote areas, (iv) construction of three mobile hospitals, and (v) securely managing entry points.

May 7: It was noted that the original estimate of CFAF 15 Billion (USD 24 Million/ 0.3% of non-oil GDP) was to be exceeded.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
May 7: For small and medium-sized enterprises, the authorities will reduce business license fees by 50% and the presumptive tax for 2020. Also, tax breaks such as carryforward losses and delays in tax payments will also be examined on a case-by-case basis. Additionally, domestic arears of about CFAF 110 billion owed to suppliers will be repaid. (completed, 2020-05-07)
Worker and social assistance
Measures will also be taken to alleviate the hardship on households, including temporary suspension of payments of electricity and water bills for the lifeline consumption, the establishment of a Youth Entrepreneurship Fund (0.6 % of non-oil GDP), a food distribution program (0.5 % of non-oil GDP) which started already with the help of UN agencies. The authorities will pay all death benefits due to deceased civil and military agents, indemnities and ancillary wages owed to retirees and payment of medical expenses for civilian agents and defense and security forces (0.1 % of non-oil GDP). Measures also include the simplification of the import process for food and necessity items, including health equipment, and tax exemptions for these items. Additionally, the authorities are in the process of hiring additional health workers (1600+, 1000 health workers have already been hired) and will set up a solidarity fund for the vulnerable population amounting to CFAF 100 billion. (completed, 2020-05-07)

Comoros

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
106
Confirmed deaths
2
Regulatory response and containment strategy
As of 30 April 2020, curfews were announced across the country, with public schools closing, and suspension of all gatherings of more than 20 people.

May 7: The president of Comoros has announced a curfew from 8PM to 5AM, also stating that a full lockdown is not feasible given the scope of the informal sector.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
7 May: The authorities have prepared a plan to minimise the risk of the pandemic, drawing on WHO recommendations. The cost of the plan is estimated at USD 2.2 million.
Official COVID-19 links

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
17
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
3,63%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
73%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
3,63%

Domestic and external financing
Comoros is included in the list of 25 nations to which the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has offered a pardon on debt servicing through the Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust. This translated to debt relief of USD 1.33 million.

22 April: the IMF has agreed to provide access to USD 4.05 million of rapid credit, and a further USD 8.08 million of rapid financing instruments to Comoros.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
The central bank reduced reserve requirements to 10 %. The authorities also announced a restructuring of commercial loans and freezing of interest rates in some commercial loans.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures

SADC Member States have established National Emergency Operations Centres to facilitate coordination of logistics and stockpiling for disasters at the national level. The SADC Pooled Procurement Services for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies is being implemented to provide sustainable availability and access to affordable and effective essential medicine and health commodities, and Member States have been encouraged to utilise this facility for the procurement of the needed supplies for prevention, treatment and control of COVID-19 and any other epidemics

A committee with special powers to make resource allocation decisions has been created.
Budget adjustments
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
May 7: An import tax decrease (by 30%) was announced for all food, medical supplies and items related to hygiene.
Worker and social assistance
The government announced this week a fund to support employees associated with airport operations.

If financing is available after raising spending on health care, the authorities intend to raise transfers to vulnerable households.

Cote d'Ivoire

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
2951
Confirmed deaths
33
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 23 March, a State of Emergency was declared with a curfew from 9pm to 5am.

On 30 April, containment measures have become more strict, with the adoption of a curfew, the ban of all travel, and the prohibition of public gatherings. This also comes with a lockdown of various sectors of the economy.

On 7 May, it was announced that some lockdown measures will ease further, with most measures still remaining until May 15.

14 May: The government of Côte d'Ivoire announced the end of the curfew in Grand Abidjan, starting from 15 May. The state of emergency has been extended until 31 May.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
A Health Response Plan of 99 billion FCFA (USD 163 million) has been adopted to break the chain of disease transmission, to guarantee the best care for the sick, isolate and track people who have been in contact with these patients and to continue efforts to keep populations safe. An Economic, Social and Humanitarian Support programme will also be implemented estimated at 1,700 billion FCFA (USD 2 billion), or about 5% of GDP.
Official COVID-19 links
http://www.gouv.ci/_grandossier.php?recordID=222

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
42
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
4,88%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
40%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
4,88%

Domestic and external financing
17 April: the IMF has also offered rapid credit and rapid financing instruments to Côte d'Ivoire of USD 295.4 million and USD 590.8 million respectively.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
On March 21: The Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) announced the following measures: i) providing XOF 340 billion of additional liquidity made available to the banks by weekly and monthly auctions up to XOF 4750 billion; ii) extending the collateral framework to access the BCEAO's refinancing to include XOF 1,050 billion of bank debt of prequalified 1,700 private companies; iii) setting-up of a framework with the banking system to support firms with repayment difficulties.

On March 25: Further measures include: i) allocation of XOF 25 billion to the trust fund of the West African Development Bank (BOAD), in order to increase the amount of confessional loans to eligible countries to finance urgent investment and equipment expenses; ii) communicating of the special program for refinancing bank credits granted to SMEs; iii) initiating negotiations with firms issuing electronic money to encourage its usage; iv) ensuring adequate provision of banknotes for satisfactory ATM operations.

To promote the use of electronic payment tools the Western Africa Central Bank (BCEAO) is providing more flexible measures to open a mobile money and making transfers between people backed by electronic money free.

In addition, the BCEAO launched a special 3-month refinancing window at a fixed rate of 2.5 % for limited amounts of 3-month "Covid-19 T-Bills" to be issued by each WAEMU sovereign to help meet funding needs related to the current pandemic. (Completed, 2020-05-07)

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
Exemption of import duties and taxes on health equipment, materials and other health inputs used in the fight against COVID-19.

On April 27, Heads of states of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) declared a temporary suspension of the WAEMU convergence criteria, including the 3 % of GDP fiscal deficit rule, to help member countries cope with the fallout of the Covid-19 pandemic, allowing member countries to raise fiscal deficits temporarily.
Budget adjustments
A special fund has been set up to finance the health response to which Government has contributed CFAF 25 billion.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
30 April: Tax audits have been suspended for a period of three months. Penalties for delays in the execution of public contracts and orders with the State have been suspended.

On 31 March, the government announced it will provide relief to hard-hit sectors and firms, and support public entities in the transport and port sectors to ensure continuity in supply chains. In this regard, the authorities created 4 special funds to be spent over 2 years, including the National Solidarity Fund of 170 billion CFAF (0.5 % of GDP), the Support Fund for the informal sector of 100 billion CFAF (0.3 % of GDP), the Support Fund for the small and medium enterprises of 150 billion CFAF (0.4 % of GDP) and the Support Fund for large companies of 100 billion CFAF (0.3 % of GDP). They will also provide financial support to the agriculture sector of 300 billion CFAF (0.8 % of GDP). Support of CFAF 250 billion for cashew, cotton, rubber, oil palm, cocoa and coffee will be provided. Support of 50 billion FCFA for food, vegetable and fruit production will be provided.

30 April: Corporate income tax, levies and social charges will be postponed for three months for affected businesses. The transport license fee will be reduced by 25%. VAT credits will be reimbursed within two weeks.
Worker and social assistance
Payment deadlines for electricity and water bills have been postponed and payment facilities will be offered. Electricity and water bills for poorest households will be covered.

On 31 March, the government announced a package of economic measures to prop the income of the most vulnerable segments of the population through agricultural input support and expanded cash transfers.

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
3195
Confirmed deaths
72
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 24 March, a State of Emergency was imposed, including confinement of the capital, Kinshasa.

As of 24 April 2020, an extension of lockdown was issued for 15 days in the DRC.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
1 May: A preparedness and response national plan is estimated at USD 138 million (0.3% of GDP) aimed at strengthening the medical response that includes the creation of a COVID-19 response team, setting up specialized wards in public hospitals to cater for COVID-19 patients, procurement of
essential medical supplies, and training of medical personnel.
Official COVID-19 links
As of 7 April, government websites had not been updated to include COVID-19 responses

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
4,23
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
3,73%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
37%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
3,73%

Domestic and external financing
Under the World Bank's COVID-19 Strategic Preparedness and Response Project USD 47 million has been provided to fund the emergency response to the COVID-19 epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

The US Government has provided USD 6 million in humanitarian funding to the Democratic Republic of Congo to fight COVID-19 pandemic.

DRC is included in the list of 25 nations to which the International Monetary Fund (USD 20.32 million of debt has been relieved).

30 April: The IMF has approved an immediate disbursement to the DRC of USD 363.3 million as a means to support the country through the pandemic.

1 May: A special fund has been established to collect tax-deductible contributions from the private sector.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
The Central Bank of the Congo cut its base interest rate to 7.5% from 9.0% in order to cushion the economic impact of the coronavirus outbreak. It will also cut mandatory reserve requirements and provide liquidity to banks

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures

Emergency clearance of inputs and pharmaceuticals products.

SADC Member States have established National Emergency Operations Centres to facilitate coordination of logistics and stockpiling for disasters at the national level. The SADC Pooled Procurement Services for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies is being implemented to provide sustainable availability and access to affordable and effective essential medicine and health commodities, and Member States have been encouraged to utilise this facility for the procurement of the needed supplies for prevention, treatment and control of COVID-19 and any other epidemics.
Budget adjustments
Transparency, accountability and participation
1 May: The authorities committed to produce a revised 2020 treasury plan reflecting the expected impact of the pandemic and the additional resources from development partners and to publish budget execution figures contained in the treasury plan on a monthly basis to enhance financial transparency. The authorities have committed to publish online all COVID-19 related procurement contracts that exceed a certain value (and disclose beneficial ownership information for the contracts exceeding USD 1 million), and will undertake and publish an internal monthly audit and a specific audit of COVID-19 related expenditures as part of the annual control of the Audit Court (LOI).

Business support and tax relief
Suspension for three months of the application of penalties for delays in the customs clearance of basic goods and necessities; Suspension for three months for the payment of rental income tax due by companies; Support to the relaunching of economic activities by means of zero-interest financing from the Industrial Promotion Fun; Suspension for three months of certain tax, parafiscal and economic audits.

The week of April 19th, the following measures were approved by the Prime Minister:i) a three-month VAT exemption on pharmaceutical products and basic goods, ii) suspension of tax audits for companies, iii) a grace period for businesses on tax arrears, iv) full tax deductibility of any donations made to the COVID relief fund. (completed, 2020-05-07)
Worker and social assistance
On 19 April, the government of the DRC implemented the following protocols: i) provision of water and electricity for a period of two months to citizens, free of charge, and ii) prohibition to evict renters in case of no payment of financial obligations from March to June 2020. (completed, 2020-05-07)

Djibouti

Tests p/million
5421
Confirmed cases
3569
Confirmed deaths
24
Regulatory response and containment strategy
The government has implemented various prevention measures, including border restrictions, interruption of passenger flights and trains to (and from) Djibouti; suspension of visa issuance; confinement of non-essential employees; and steps to encourage social distancing.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
21 May: Health and other priority expenditure of approximately USD 75 million (2.4% of GDP) will be necessary to address the health and economic and social consequences of COVID-19.
Official COVID-19 links
https://www.presidence.dj/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
56
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
3,10%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
26%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
3,10%

Domestic and external financing
An Emergency and Solidarity Fund COVID-19 has been established to cover patient care and purchase of healthcare equipment. It will also serve as a national body of financial solidarity for the most vulnerable demographic components and those working in the private sector. 1billion Djibouti francs has been injected by government and will be complemented by funds from international partners and reallocation of budgeted funds. It is also open to goodwill donation and will have its main account at the Central Bank and will have secondary accounts in various banking establishments..

2 April: The World bank approved credit to Djibouti of USD 5 million through the International Development Association.

8 May: The IMF has provided access to USD 43.4 million in from its Rapid Credit Facility to Djibouti. The IMF has also offered debt relief of USD 2.3 million through its Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
7 May: Financial sector analysis has been stepped up as a means to assess the correct monetary policy intervention to be made by the Central Bank of Djibouti.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
Budget adjustments
Transparency, accountability and participation
4 May: The authorities are committed to undertake an ex-post audit of COVID-19 expenditure and to subject them to enhanced public disclosure, including by publishing large procurement contracts and the beneficial ownership of selected firms.

Business support and tax relief
The Emergency and Solidarity Fund will support the private sector. More details to follow.
Worker and social assistance
The Emergency and Solidarity Fund will support vulenerable people. More details to follow.

Egypt

Tests p/million
244
Confirmed cases
26384
Confirmed deaths
1005
Regulatory response and containment strategy
A State of Emergency is in place. A partial curfew was announced on 25 March 25.

30 April 2020: A more stringent curfew, along with closing of various economic activities, have effectively locked down most residents in Egypt.

10 May: The Egyptian Ministry of Health announced an extension of its curfew during Ramadan, due to a steady number of positive cases.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
Official COVID-19 links

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
151
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
4,22%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
62%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
4,22%

Domestic and external financing
The government has announced stimulus policies in the USD 6.4 billion package (EGP 100 billion, 2 % of GDP) to mitigate the economic impact of COVID-19.

On 22 March, the government announced it would allocate USD 1.27 billion to support the stock exchange.

On 20 March, the World Bank activated the Contingency Emergency Response Component (CERC) under the “Transforming Egypt’s Healthcare System Project”. USD 7.9 million has been provided to fund emergency response activities related to the COVID-19 outbreak in Egypt.

May 11: The IMF has released USD 2.8 billion to Egypt through its Rapid Financing Instrument.

Monetary and macrofinancial measures
The central bank has reduced the policy rate by 300 basis points (3%).

The preferential interest rate on loans to SMEs, industry, tourism and housing for low-income and middle-class families, has been reduced from 10 % to 8 %.

The limit for electronic payments via mobile phones has been raised to EGP 30,000/day (USD 1,900) and EGP 100,000/month (USD 6,334) for individuals, and to EGP 40,000/day (USD2540) and EGP 200,000/per week (USD 12,668) for corporations.

A new debt relief initiative for individuals at risk of default has also been announced, that will waive marginal interest on debt under EGP 1 million (USD 64,200) if customers make a 50 % payment.

The regulations issued last year requiring banks to obtain detailed information of borrowers have been relaxed.

The central bank has also launched an EGP 20 billion (USD1,3 million) stock-purchase programme.

May 14: Capital outflows from the country have induced large exchange rate volatility. In order to curb this, the central bank of the country has drawn down foreign exchange reserves in order to prop up the exchange rate.

On May 14, it was announced that all central bank policy rates would remain unchanged given the large change to its policy rates in March.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
Budget adjustments
To support the healthcare sector, EGP 3.8 billion has been allocated, targeted at providing urgent and necessary medical supplies, and disbursing bonuses for medical staff working in quarantine hospitals and labs.

The government has announced stimulus policies in the USD 6.4 billion package (EGP 100 billion, 2 % of GDP) to mitigate the economic impact of COVID-19.

On 22 March, the government announced it would allocate USD 1.27 billion to support the stock exchange.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
The moratorium on the tax law on agricultural land has been extended for 2 years.

The stamp duty on transactions and tax on dividends have been reduced.

Capital gains tax has been postponed until further notice.

Withholding tax imposed on dividend distributions made by EGX listed companies has been reduced from 10% to 5% in Egypt.

Tax breaks for industrial and tourism businesses have been enacted.

The cost of electricity and natural gas to industries has been reduced.

As part of the EGP 100 billion (USD6,3 million) stimulus, EGP 50 billion (USD 3,2 million) has been announced for the tourism sector.

Suspension of credit score blacklists for irregular clients and waiver of court cases for defaulted customers have been announced.

Individuals filing their incomes tax online will not be charged the subscription fee of the online tax filing portal.
Worker and social assistance
Pensions have been increased by 14 %.

A targeted support initiative for irregular workers in most severely hit sectors has been announced, which will entail EGP 500 in monthly grants for 3 months.

7 May: To support medical professionals, including doctors working in university hospitals, a 75 % allowance over the wages has been announced.

7 May: A new debt relief initiative for individuals at risk of default has also been announced, that will waive marginal interest on debt under EGP 1 million ( USD 64,200) if customers make a 50 % payment.

7 May: The Ministry of Social Solidarity is planning to add 60,000 families to Takaful and Karama programs; also, increased payments are envisioned for women leaders in rural areas (EGP 900 per month (USD57) instead of EGP 350 (USD22)).

Equatorial Guinea

Tests p/million
609
Confirmed cases
1306
Confirmed deaths
12
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 14 April, a lockdown was announced.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
Official COVID-19 links
https://www.guineaecuatorialpress.com/buscador.php?cat=10005

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
197
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
2,59%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
73%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
2,59%

Domestic and external financing
Focus will be given to strengthening tax administration.

Parking lots at the Malabo and Bata airports are due to be nationalised.

Oil and Gas companies are required to pay CIT for 2019 by the end of April and the MMH and MFEP have been empowered to lead the negotiations.

THE NATIONAL CORONAVIRUS EMERGENCY FUND- 19 is created to raise Economic and Financial Funds to combat the spread of the Coronavirus Pandemic in the Republic of Equatorial Guinea. The government committed to contribute USD10 million to the special emergency fund. Accounts will be opened in national banks for the entry of voluntary contributions called the National Emergency Fund CORONAVIRUS- 19. Any other aid from external sources - country governments, friends, economic institutions and humanitarian organisations - will also be contributed to the Fund.

April: the UNDP has drafted a support package for Equatorial Guinea of USD 650 000.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
On March 24, 2020, BEAC announced that it will suspend its main absorption operations on the monetary market for the coming week in order to better assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on banking liquidity in CEMAC. However, banks with financing needs will be able to satisfy their requests at the marginal lending facility under the usual conditions. Further measures are expected to be taken following the Monetary Policy Committee meeting scheduled on March 27.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
Enabled a special unit for the promotion of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in basic public services such as: water, sanitation, electricity and communication.
Budget adjustments
On 31 March, Decree No 43/2020 was adopted to finance the General State Budget, mitigate the effects of COVID-19 on economic acitivity and vulnerable populations. It ensure the financing of the 2020/21 budget through bilateral and multilateral financing and rationalising of public expenditure and slowing down execution of non-priority expenditures. The decree ensures the financing of the Plan to Strengthen the National Public Health System. The 2020 Budget will be adjusted to prioritise the most affected ministerial departments, specially Health, Social Affairs, Civil Aviation and National Security.The Government will reprogram public investment expenditures to the second half of the fiscal year to avoid accumulation of arrears.

In March, the government deployed an initial health spending plan (0.07 % of GDP) focused mainly on prevention. In April, the government broadened emergency health spending (0.3 % of GDP), mainly to improve hospital preparedness to respond to local transmission.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
The deadline for payment of the minimum income tax (MIT) for the year 2020 shall be extended until June.
The period for voluntary payment of the liquidation resulting from corporate income tax for the year 2019 is extended to July.
The MIT is also reduced from 3% to 1.5% for the year 2020, until 30 September 2020.

Decree No 43/2020 also offers non-fiscal incentives to SMEs in the non-oil sector, including reducing electricity, internet payments

Donations for the Partial Guarantee Fund for affected SMEs will be increased by XAF 1 billion (USD 1,64 million).

Companies involved in food distribution and all companies that hire new employees to reinforce their workforce
to comply with the standards established by the health authorities will receive a bonus of 100% of the
Social Security contributions until September 30th, 2020.

May 7: SMEs and households, in light of Covid-19, have faced reduced electricity bills
Worker and social assistance
Decree No 43/2020 ensures financing of the Basic Social Guarantees Program. The Program will guarantee: (I) basic food and basic necessities for identified households, (II) a basic personal and household hygiene kit for identified groups; (III) social support consisting of counseling and psychological and health support.. The social assistance scheme also includes measures to ensure continuity of education.

May 7: SMEs and households, in light of Covid-19, have faced reduced electricity bills

Eritrea

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
39
Confirmed deaths
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 2 April, a 21-day national lockdown commenced. The lockdown of economic activity was extended indefinitely from 22 April.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
Official COVID-19 links
http://www.shabait.com/home

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
16
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
2,92%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
59%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
2,92%

Domestic and external financing
On 3 April, it was announced that members of the Central region Assembly would contribute one-month salary in support of the effort to curb the spread of Covid-19.

Eritrean nationals in the Diaspora are extending financial support to contain the spread of corona virus through their embassies. Contributions are published on http://www.shabait.com/home.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
Budget adjustments
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
Various organisations and ministries have provided extra funding as a means to bolster economically vulnerable sectors.
Worker and social assistance

Eswatini

Tests p/million
615
Confirmed cases
293
Confirmed deaths
3
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 17 March, a State of Public Emergency was declared. On 27 March, a partial lockdown came into effect. As of 27 April, more regions in the country have experienced a lockdown, with closure of some ports between Eswatini and South Africa, as well as suspension of other international travel.

8 May: The government of Eswatini announced the gradual easing of lockdown restrictions.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
Official COVID-19 links
http://www.gov.sz/index.php/covid-19-corona-virus/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
460
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
15%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
9,90%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
15%

Domestic and external financing
On 20 April, the World Bank Group approved USD 6 million in health emergency funding for a project that will help strengthen the country’s health system preparedness to respond to this and potential future emergencies.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
The Central Bank of Eswatini cut its main lending rate by 100 basis points to 5.5%, citing global and domestic economic developments and the impact of coronavirus. The reduction was to ensure the equal pegging of the local currency with the South African rand after the South African Reserve Bank (SARB) cut its main lending rate by 100 basis points to 5.25% on March 19.

The Central Bank has reduced the liquidity requirement for the banks from 25% to 20% giving the banks more liquidity.

30 April: The Central Bank further reduced its discount rate by 100 basis points to 4.5% . The Central Bank of Eswatini has also: (i) ) reduced the reserve requirement to 5 % (from 6 %); (ii) reduced the liquidity requirement to 20 % (from 25) for commercial banks and to 18 % (from 22) for the development bank; (iii) encouraged greater use of electronic payments; and (iv) encouraged banks to consider loan restructuring and repayment holidays. Banks have announced that those individuals and companies that need short term financial support or relief can approach them and each application will be assessed on a risk-based approach.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
SADC Member States have established National Emergency Operations Centres to facilitate coordination of logistics and stockpiling for disasters at the national level. The SADC Pooled Procurement Services for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies is being implemented to provide sustainable availability and access to affordable and effective essential medicine and health commodities, and Member States have been encouraged to utilise this facility for the procurement of the needed supplies for prevention, treatment and control of COVID-19 and any other epidemics.

On 28 March, the Government set the price for hand sanitisers to an amount not exceeding E150 per litre (USD 8,13).

A committee with special powers to make resource allocation decisions has been created.
Budget adjustments
(30/4) A supplementary budget was approved for additional public healthcare of E100 million (USD 5.5 million) (0.14 % of GDP).

Low priority recurrent spending will be redirected to the fight against the pandemic and a portion of the capital budget will be reallocated towards refurbishing hospitals and completing new hospitals.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
Extension of returns filling deadlines by 3 months before penalties kick-in.

Provisional tax payments: Taxpayers projecting losses will file loss provisional returns, hence no payment will be required. The due date has been postponed by 3 months, which means June declarations and payments are due in September and December declarations due in March 2021.

Taxpayers facing cash flow problems should provide evidence to be considered for payment arrangements. This only applies to current dues for Income Tax.
Worker and social assistance
Food assistance will be provided to the most vulnerable, benefiting over 300,000 people.

Ethiopia

Tests p/million
40
Confirmed cases
1257
Confirmed deaths
12
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 7 April, a 5-month State of Emergency was declared, giving the Federal Government more authority and ability to work with regional governments.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
On April 3, the Prime Minister’s office announced a COVID-19 Multi-Sectoral Preparedness and Response Plan requiring USD 1.64 billion in funding (about 1.6 % of GDP). The bulk of the outlays would be channeled toward emergency food distribution (0.6% of GDP) and health sector support (0.4% of GDP).
Official COVID-19 links
https://www.covid19.et/covid-19/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
19
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
6,02%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
37%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
6,02%

Domestic and external financing
By April 2020, the World Bank had provided USD 82 million (comprising 50% loan and 50% grant) to help Ethiopia address critical needs for COVID-19 preparedness and response, including the provision of vital medical equipment, health system capacity-building, and support to establish treatment centers.

In April 2020, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation provided Addis Ababa USD 600 000.

On 30 April 2020, the IMF provided a loan to Ethiopia of USD 411 Million through their rapid financing instrument. This will be provided as budget support. It also approved Ethiopia’s request for a suspension of debt-service payments of about USD 12 million to the IMF under the IMF's Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust.

17 May: France will provide EUR 40 million (USD 44 million) budgetary support to Ethiopia to help fight COVID-19 through the French Development Agency (AFD). This is part of EUR85 million support pledged by the French government in June 2019, meant to assist Ethiopia's implementation of economic reforms.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
The Central Bank has provided 15 billion Birr (USD 454 million or 0.45 % of GDP) of additional liquidity to private banks to facilitate debt restructuring and prevent bankruptcies.

6 May: Increased mobile banking transfer limits at the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia to limit in-person transactions.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
In April, Ethiopia and the United Nations on Tuesday opened a humanitarian transport hub at Addis Ababa airport to move supplies and aid workers across Africa to fight coronavirus. The arrangement, which relies on cargo services provided by Ethiopian Airlines, could also partially offset revenue losses of USD 550 million between January and April.

6 May: Tax exemptions and preferential access to currency for importers of materials and equipment to be used in the prevention and containment of COVID-19.
Budget adjustments
Ethiopia initially announced a Br 300 million package to bolster healthcare spending in early March. On March 23, the Prime Minister announced the aid package would be increased to Br 5 billion (USD154 million or 0.15 % of GDP).

In addition, under the Response Plan, USD 430 million (0.4 % of GDP) will be allocated to health sector response under a worst-case scenario of community spread with over 100,000 COVID-19 cases of infection in the country, primarily in urban areas.
Transparency, accountability and participation
6 May: The authorities are committed to full transparency on the spending for the emergency response and aim to conduct an ex-post audit of crisis-related spending once the crisis abates.

Business support and tax relief
On April 30, the Council of Ministers approved debt forgiveness of all tax debt prior to 2014/2015, a tax amnesty on interest and penalties for tax debt pertaining to 2015/2016-2018/2019, and exemption from personal income tax withholding for 4 months for firms who keep paying employee salaries despite not being able to operate due to Covid-19.
Worker and social assistance
Under the Response Plan, USD 635 million (0.6 % of GDP) will be allocated for emergency food distribution to 15 million individuals vulnerable to food insecurity; USD 282 million (0.3 % of GDP) for provision of emergency shelter and non-food items; USD 293 million (0.1 % of GDP) would be allocated to agricultural sector support, nutrition, the protection of vulnerable groups, additional education outlays, logistics, refugees support and site management support.

As part of the state of emergency measures taken to curb the spread of COVID-19, Ethiopia has prohibited companies from laying off workers and terminating employment.

Gabon

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
2655
Confirmed deaths
17
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 10 April, a State of Emergency was declared. A lockdown was declared in Grand Libreville from April 12, 2020 for 15 days, renewable if the circumstances require.

Since 27 April, some lockdown measures have been relaxed, and partial lockdown of various cities remains in place as opposed to full lockdown protocols.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
16 April: Additional healthcare spending to protect people’s wellbeing, take care of the sick, slow the spread of the virus, and ensure the production of medical supplies requires CFAF 65 billion (0.7% of GDP).

On April 29, the authorities of Gabon created and disseminated a draft response plan to improve the economic circumstances of the country in light of Covid-19. This response plan is expected to cost CFAF 19.5 billion (USD 32.2 million).

Official COVID-19 links
http://www.gouvernement.ga/accueil

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
359
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
9,20%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
23%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
9,20%

Domestic and external financing
On 9 April, SDR 108 million was provided by the IMF through its Rapid Credit Facility

May 19: The World Bank approved USD 9 million of financing from their INternational Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
On March 24, 2020, BEAC announced that it will suspend its main absorption operations on the monetary market for the coming week in order to better assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on banking liquidity in CEMAC. However, banks with financing needs will be able to satisfy their requests at the marginal lending facility under the usual conditions. Further measures are expected to be taken following the Monetary Policy Committee meeting scheduled on March 27.

On March 27, 2020, BEAC announced a set of monetary easing measures including a decrease of the policy rate by 25 bps to 3.25 %, a decrease of the Marginal Lending Facility rate by 100 bps to 5 %, a suspension of absorption operations, an increase of liquidity provision from FCFA 240 to 500 billion (USD 394 to 823 million), and a widening of the range of private instruments accepted as collateral in monetary operations. The MPC also supported BEAC’s management’s intent to propose to reduce haircuts applicable to private instruments accepted as collateral for refinancing operations, and to postpone by one-year principal repayment of consolidated central bank’s credits to member states, but these possible additional measures are not effective yet. On March 25, 2020, the COBAC informed banks that they can use their capital conservation buffers of 2.5 % to absorb pandemic-related losses but requested banks to adopt a restrictive policy with regard to dividend distribution.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
The Minister of Finance has designated a public accountant in order to facilitate disbursements of health-related spending of the COVID-19 fund.
Budget adjustments
Authorities’ current projection envisages the control of non-priority expenditure and redirecting savings of FCFA 17 billion (USD 454 million or 0.2 % of GDP) to COVID-19 related spending.

Revenue losses are estimated at between CFAF 230 and 645 billion (USD 378 million and 1 billion)

To cope with this situation, the President of the Republic instructed the Government to draw up an Amendied Finance Law for the 2020 financial year and a plan for economic and social support, without resorting to borrowing. He instructed the Government to find an endogenous solution and secure compulsory expenditure (pensions, grants, social safety nets, etc.) and to ensure the sovereign functioning of the State. The Government has also guaranteed to maintain the supply chain of foodstuffs and other essential products and to contain the rise in prices.

Authorities’ current projection envisages the control of non-priority expenditure and redirect savings and development partners support of FCFA 66.1 billion (USD 110.2 million or 0.74 % of GDP) to COVID-19 related spending
Transparency, accountability and participation
16 April: The government committed to quarterly reporting of emergency funds, and an independent commission of an audit of the expenditure within 6 months of disbursement. The reusults of the audit and any related procurement contracts will be published.

Business support and tax relief
The government plans to allocate an additional FCFA 115.9 billion (USD 193.2 million or 1.3 % of GDP) as an economic response, including through food stamps, electricity and water subsidies, direct support to SMEs and tax holidays (completed, 2020-05-07)
Worker and social assistance
On 10 April, the President of the Republic announced the establishment of a massive and exceptional Economic Safeguard and Social Aid Plan in the region of CFAF 250 billion.
The government announced support for water and electricity bills for the most vulnerable demographics.
The suspension during lockdown of rent payments from people without income
Free land transport provided by public companies
The establishment of a technical unemployment benefit to cover between 50 to 70% of gross salary excluding bonuses to preserve jobs in the formal private sector and maintain workers' purchasing power.
The granting of food aid to people in distress and emergency situations.
Support of CFAF 967 million will be provided to citizens stranded abroad but unable to repatriate.

The government plans to allocate an additional FCFA 115.9 billion (USD 193.2 million or 1.3 % of GDP) as an economic response, including through food stamps, electricity and water subsidies, direct support to SMEs and tax holidays (completed, 2020-05-07)

The government has created a fund with an initial allocation of FCFA 4 billion (approx. USD 2 million) for social assistance.

Gambia

Tests p/million
116
Confirmed cases
25
Confirmed deaths
1
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 27 March, a State of Emergency was declared closing all non-essential public and private businesses.

On 4 April, the state approved an extension of the state of emergency for a further 45 days.

On 7 May, these measures were eased slightly.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
The authorities have prepared a USD 9 million COVID-19 action plan.
Official COVID-19 links

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
14
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
2,76%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
24%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
2,76%

Domestic and external financing
On 2 April, The World Bank Board approved a USD10 million grant from the International Development Association (IDA).The COVID-19 Response and Preparedness Project will enhance case detection, tracing, and reporting, as well as provide equipment to isolation and treatment centers, and improve disease surveillance and diagnostic capacity. It will also focus on risk communications and community engagement for increased awareness and compliance with prevention and social distancing measures.

The Gambia is included in the list of 25 nations to which the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has offered a pardon on debt servicing through the Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust. As of 7 May, The Gambia has received debt relief of USD 2.87 million.

On 15 April, the Gambia has received an alotment from the IMF rapid financing instrument of USD 21.3 million.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
Domestic financial conditions have tightened with the average yield on the most used 364-days T-bills increasing to 11.4 % (400 bps higher than at end-2019). To ease liquidity conditions the central bank reduced its monetary policy rate by 50 basis points at end-February 2020 to 12 % and increased its standing deposit facility rate by the same margin to 3 %. It is also actively monitoring the situation and is in close communication with banks and ready to respond to the situation as inflationary presures warrant. Further measures are under consideration to provide emergency liquidity support together with increased intensity and frequency of supervision to address any financial stability concerns.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
23 April: With temporary closure of the National Assembly and the situation of public finances being too fluid to prepare a credible supplementary budget, the authorities can use two options provided in The Gambia Public Finance Act to accommodate new spending priorities during a fiscal year on a provisional basis. These are: (i) budget reallocation; and
(ii) creation of an emergency fund (capped at 1% of current budget) as a dedicated spending line within the treasury single account. The authorities have, so far, been re-allocating spending from the existing 2020 budget to accommodate the COVID-19 spending.
Budget adjustments
The Government has also reallocated 500 million dalasi (USD 9.8 million or 0.6 % of GDP) from the current budget to the Ministry of Health and other relevent public entities to complement the support already received from partners to prevent and control the spread of the COVID-19 outbreak.
Transparency, accountability and participation
23 April: The authorities are working to ensure transparency in crisis-related procurement and contracting to mitigate the risk of corruption in public expenditure.

Business support and tax relief
A broader set of measures including further support to enterprises and job protection in urban areas and industrial parks is under discussion with the donor community but has not been formalized. The expansion of the Urban Productive Safety Net Programme to 16 additional cities over the next two months is under active consideration, in collaboration with the World Bank, at an estimated cost of $134 million).
Worker and social assistance
Emergency powers have been invoked by the President to freeze prices and ration essential food (rice, meat, fish and cooking oil) and non-food (soap, sanitizers and cement) commodities to prevent price gouging and hoarding.

May 7: 2000 tons of fertilizer were distributed to in need to subsistence farmers

Ghana

Tests p/million
1430
Confirmed cases
8070
Confirmed deaths
36
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 30 March, a two-week partial lockdown in the two major metropolitan areas of Accra and Kumasi was imposed. On 20 April, the lockdown was lifted partially.

On 4 May, it was announced that Ghana’s borders will be closed for an additional month following the increase in confirmed cases of COVID-19.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
30 April: The initial COVID-19 Preparedness and Response Plan was set at USD 6.5 million, this was revised to USD 100 million. The authorities have also announced a USD 166 million Coronavirus Alleviation Program (CAP) to support the economy. Total financing requirement is USD 266 million (0.4% of GDP).
Official COVID-19 links
https://ghanahealthservice.org/covid19/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
73
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
6,54%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
38%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
6,54%

Domestic and external financing
On 2 April, the World Bank agreed to provide USD 100 million to Ghana to assist the country in tackling the COVID-19 pandemic, available to the government and the people of Ghana as short, medium and long-term support. This financing package includes USD35 million in emergency support to help the country provide improved response systems.

On 13 April, the IMF approved the disbursement of SDR 738 million (about USD 1 billion) to be drawn under the Rapid Credit Facility. This will be direct budget support.

15 April: The President has established a COVID-19 Fund, to be managed by an independent board of trustees, chaired by a former Chief Justice to receive contributions and donations from the public to support the welfare of the needy and the vulnerable.

16 April: The government has agreed with investors to postpone interest payment on non-marketable domestic bonds held by public institutions to fund the financial sector clean-up for about GHc 1.2 billion (0.3 percent of GDP).

7 May: In order to reduce financing needs, the government will draw USD 218 million from the stabilsation fund.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) cut the policy rate cut by 150 basis points to 14.5% on March 18, and announced several measures to mitigate the impact of the pandemic shock, including lowering the primary reserve requirement from 10 to 8 %, lowering the capital conservation buffer from 3 to 1.5 %, revising provisioning and classification rules for specific loan categories, and steps to facilitate and lower the cost of mobile payments. The committee also signaled it would continue to monitor the economic impact of COVID-19 and hold emergency meetings if necessary.

Beginning on Friday March 20, 2020, all mobile money transfers of GH¢100 (USD 17,28) and below will be free of charge from service providers for the next 3 months.

On 15 May, the Monetary Policy Committee of the Bank of Ghana decided to keep the policy rate unchanged, given its decrease in March by 150 basis points.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
As Covid-19 began to cause global disruptions in drug supply chains, subsequently threatening the supply of important medicine in Ghana, in mid-March mPharma launched a price control programme called ‘Mutti Keep My Price’. The initiative allows patients in need of chronic disease medication to continue paying the same price for their prescriptions for up to six months, regardless of market prices.

In March, the Government arranged Life and Sickness Insurance for healthcare professionals on the front line of the pandemic.

16 April: The Minister of Finance has proposed to Parliament to amend the law to grant access to the Heritage Fund of USD 591 million.

30 April: Considering the suspension of the fiscal responsibility rules in the Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2018 (Act 982) to enable Government to exceed the deficit target of 5% of GDP for 2020 by about 1.1% of rebased GDP.

30 April: The Ministry of Finance constituted a 5-member ‘MoF COVID-19 Response Team’ to ensure quick response to processing of COVID-19 request for payments within 48-72 hours upon receipt; review and validate request for funds to ensure that they meet the standard operating procedures and are eligible under World Bank Financing; provide feedback/reports to management on the drawdowns of emergency funds; and maintain a matrix of all COVID-19 initiatives for coordinating purposes.

30 April: Procurement laws provide for emergency procurement processes such as using sole-sourcing contracts.

Budget adjustments
The projected shortfall in Annual Budget Funding Amount (ABFA) is GHȼ3,526 million; while shortfalls in the Ghana Stabilisation Fund and the Ghana Heritage Fund are GHȼ1,058 million ( USD 182,794) and GHȼ453 million (USD 78 million), respectively. Projected shortfalls in transfers to GNPC is GHȼ642million (USD111 million).

The government committed USD 100 million to support preparedness and response. Additional funds have been earmarked to address availability of test kits, pharmaceuticals, equipment, and bed capacity. On 27 March, a Coronavirus Alleviation Programme (CAP) was established. The Ministry of Finance proposes providing 1 Billion Ghana Cedis (USD 173 million) to this. The Ministry is proposing to use the equivalent of USD219 Million from the Stabilization Fund.

On 30 March, the Minister of Finance proposed to Parliament:
To lower the cap on the Ghana Stabilisation Fund (GSF) from the current USD 300 million to USD 100 million to enable the excess amount in the GSF over the USD 100 million cap to be transferred into the Contingency Fund. The amount transferred into the Contingency Fund will be used to fund the Coronavirus Alleviation Programme (CAP).
To arrange with Bank of Ghana to defer interest payments on non-marketable instruments to 2022 and beyond.
Adjust expenditures on Goods & Services and Capex downwards by GHȼ1,248 million (USD 215,620).
Amend the PRMA to allow a withdrawal from the Ghana Heritage Fund to undertake urgent expenditures in relation to the Coronavirus pandemic. There is an estimated USD 591.1 million in the Ghana Heritage Fund.

Realignment of Statutory Funds towards expenditures that tend to mitigate the impact of the coronavirus pandemic (sanitation and health related expenditures) and limiting the award of new contracts whiles focusing on the payment of arrears.

Pension funds and investors have been encouraged to follow the lead of the Banks to support by accepting a 200 bps reduction on short term instruments including T-bills and 364-day paper. This should reduce government expenditure on interest expense by over GHS300 million (USD 51 million) to help close the fiscal gap.

On 27 March, the Ministry of Health paid GHȼ300 million (USD 51 million) to NHIA on Friday 27th March 2020 to provide liquidity to Healthcare providers and the pharmaceutical industry.
Transparency, accountability and participation
16 April: Should the fiscal rule be suspended, the government will, in accordance with the Fiscal Responsibility Act, present to Parliament, within 30 days of suspending the fiscal rule, plans to restore public finances after the emergency.

30 April: Internal audit units are being used to scrutinise all payment requests at the MDA level.

Business support and tax relief
The Bank of Ghana and the Ministry of Finance have engaged the Commercial Banks to discuss their support to the private sector to mitigate the impact of the Coronavirus pandemic. The support includes:
i. a syndication facility of GHȼ3 billion to support industry especially in the pharmaceutical, hospitality, service and manufacturing sectors, as mentioned by His Excellency the President;
ii. granting of six-month moratorium of principal repayments for selected businesses;
iii. reduction of interest rates priced-off the Ghana Reference Rate (GRR) by 200 basis points (2% per annum).

Telecom companies have been asked to reduce the cost of data and telecommunication services to households and small businesses.

The Ghana Revenue Authority will provide some reliefs to businesses and households including:
i. extension of due dates for filling of taxes from 4 months to 6 months after the end of the basis year;
ii. tax payers encouraged to pay their taxes by bank transfers;
iii. grant a remission of penalties on principal debts to tax payers who redeem, their outstanding debts due GRA up to 30th June 2020;
iv. wave VAT on donations of stock of equipment and goods for fighting the Covid-19 Pandemic;
v. wave taxes on selected Third-Tier Pension withdrawals; and
vi. permit the deduction of contributions and donations towards COVID-19 as allowable expense for tax purposes.
Worker and social assistance
31 March: Government through the Ministries of Finance and Gender, Children and Social Protection, is embarking on a food distribution drive to ensure that needy people in areas under the restriction of movement directive by H. E. the President, live in comfort.

31 March: Ghana has extended health insurance to all health workers.

30 April: Food packages and hot meals for at least one million people, procurement of food from Ghana National Buffer Stock Company to support the exercise, Government will make payment of 3-months water bill for all Ghanaians and provide water through water tankers.

30 April: Waiver of personal income taxes for all health workers, allowance for 50% basic salary for all frontline health workers for 4 months, transport of health workers in Accra, Tema , Kumasi and Kasoa.


Guinea

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
3844
Confirmed deaths
23
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 26 March, a State of Emergency was declared and the lockdown was tightened.

On 30 April, lockdown restrictions have been extended until May 15.

May 15: Government instituted a curfew from 10pm to 5am in the greater Conakry region (Conakry, Coyah and Dubréka); and lifted the curfew in the rest of the country.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
On 6 April, a COVID-19 economic response plan, estimated at USD 360 million was announced. The Plan aims at strengthening infrastructure in the health sector, protecting the most vulnerable, and supporting the private sector, notably small and medium enterprises.

16 April: The health preparedness and response plan was initially estimated at USD 13 million (0.1% of GDP).

6 May: The cost of the economic response plan is now expected to be around USD 290 million (2% of GDP), while a National Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan for Covid-19 is now estimated to cost USD 47 million. Total financing requirement is USD 337 million (3% of GDP).
Official COVID-19 links

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
13
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
4,11%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
50%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
4,11%

Domestic and external financing
Guinea is included in the list of 25 nations to which the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has offered a pardon on debt servicing through the Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust. As of 13 April, debt relief through the IMF came to USD 22.4 million.

16 April: IMF approved a USD 23.5 million (SDR 17.213 million) rapid credit facility disbursement for Guinea.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
On March 21: The Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) announced the following measures: i) providing XOF 340 billion of additional liquidity made available to the banks by weekly and monthly auctions up to XOF 4750 billion; ii) extending the collateral framework to access the BCEAO's refinancing to include XOF 1,050 billion of bank debt of prequalified 1,700 private companies; iii) setting-up of a framework with the banking system to support firms with repayment difficulties.
On March 25: Further measures include: i) allocation of XOF 25 billion to the trust fund of the West African Development Bank (BOAD), in order to increase the amount of confessional loans to eligible countries to finance urgent investment and equipment expenses; ii) communicating of the special program for refinancing bank credits granted to SMEs; iii) initiating negotiations with firms issuing electronic money to encourage its usage; iv) ensuring adequate provision of banknotes for satisfactory ATM operations.

To promote the use of electronic payment tools the Western Africa Central Bank (BCEAO) is providing more flexible measures to open a mobile money and making transfers between people backed by electronic money free.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
A committee with special powers to make resource allocation decisions has been created.
Budget adjustments
Transparency, accountability and participation
of the MDA

Business support and tax relief
Ethiopian authorities have formally requested IMF support in the form of an RFI at 100 % of quota (given maxed out use of PRGT resources under the ongoing ECF/EFF program).
Worker and social assistance
Among the measures announced to tackle the coronavirus, the state will pay the electricity bills of the poorest for three months, freeze the price of medicines and basic necessities during the pandemic and introduce free public transport for three months.

Guinea-Bissau

Tests p/million
762
Confirmed cases
1339
Confirmed deaths
8
Regulatory response and containment strategy
A State of Emergency has been declared. While the initial announcement of a national lockdown was announced on the 28 March, the government has since extended this lockdown until 11 May 2020.

17 May: The state of emergency has been renewed for a further 15 days, until 26 May, due to continued rise in COVID-19 cases. The government has decreed the mandatory used of masks in public areas, and a nationowide mandatory curfew between 8pm and 6am.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
Official COVID-19 links

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
43
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
13%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
35%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
13%

Domestic and external financing
Guinea-Bissau is included in the list of 25 nations to which the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has offered a pardon on debt servicing through the Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust. As of 13 April 2020, this debt relief amounted to USD 1.48 million.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
March 21: The Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) announced the following measures: i) providing XOF 340 billion of additional liquidity made available to the banks by weekly and monthly auctions up to XOF 4750 billion; ii) extending the collateral framework to access the BCEAO's refinancing to include XOF 1,050 billion of bank debt of prequalified 1,700 private companies; iii) setting-up of a framework with the banking system to support firms with repayment difficulties.

March 25: Further measures include: i) allocation of XOF 25 billion to the trust fund of the West African Development Bank (BOAD), in order to increase the amount of confessional loans to eligible countries to finance urgent investment and equipment expenses; ii) communicating of the special program for refinancing bank credits granted to SMEs; iii) initiating negotiations with firms issuing electronic money to encourage its usage; iv) ensuring adequate provision of banknotes for satisfactory ATM operations.

To promote the use of electronic payment tools the Western Africa Central Bank (BCEAO) is providing more flexible measures to open a mobile money and making transfers between people backed by electronic money free.

As of 30 April, the regional central bank has also created "Covid-19 T-bills" as a means to raise funding during the pandemic. (removed bracketed text).

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
On April 27, Heads of states of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) declared a temporary suspension of the WAEMU growth and stability pact setting six convergence criteria, including the 3 % of GDP fiscal deficit rule, to help member-countries cope with the fallout of the Covid-19 pandemic, allowing member countries to raise fiscal deficits temporarily. (Completed, 2020-05-07)
Budget adjustments
Emergency measures of about USD 0.5 million have been approved. These are focused on upgrading the main national hospital, and the provision of medicines, food, and medical equipment to the country’s hospitals. The authorities already made available FCFA 100 million (0.01 % of GDP) and will provide monthly FCFA 122 million to the main hospital.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
Worker and social assistance
As of 30 April, CFAF 525 Million ($0.9 Million) has been allocated by the state to purchase essential food items for those in relatively weak economic standing. (completed, 2020-05-07)

Kenya

Tests p/million
151
Confirmed cases
2021
Confirmed deaths
69
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 28 March, a Public Health Emergency was declared. As at end-April 2020, a lockdown in certain parts of the country was announced, and extended until the middle of May.

3 May: Education Secretary declares that schools will remain closed for one more month.


COVID-19: expected financing requirement
30 April: COVID-19 spending interventions of KES 40 billion (374 million or 0.4% of GDP) in 2019/20 have been included in a supplementary budget.
Official COVID-19 links
http://www.health.go.ke/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
52
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
6,06%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
28%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
6,06%

Domestic and external financing
A Covid-19 Emergency Response Fund has been formed accompanied by regulatory guidelines.

Kenya's executive has agreed to pay cuts as the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 continue to rise, President Uhuru Kenyatta announced on Wednesday. Kenyatta and his deputy will take an 80% pay cut, while their ministers and their assistants will take pay cuts ranging from 20% to 30%.

The Central Bank released Shs 7.4 billion (USD 69 million) to the government to support the fight against COVID-19. The bank explained that the money was an “exceptional and unbudgeted windfall” that came from the value of notes that were rendered worthless after the Shs 1000 note was demonetized last year.

On 2 April, the World Bank Group Board of Directors approved USD50 million in immediate funding to support Kenya’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic under a new operation - the Kenya COVID -19 Emergency Response Project.

The Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions donated USD 19 million to the country’s coronavirus emergency fund from money that his office had seized from corrupt dealings in the past two years.

On 6 May 2020, The IMF approved USD 739 million under the Rapid Credit Facility (RCF) to meet Kenya’s urgent balance of payments need stemming from the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic.

20 May: The World Bank has approved USD 1 billion in budgetary support for Kenya as a means to close its fiscal financing gap, and also as a means to respond to the economic impact of Covid-19 on the country.

On 22 May, the African Development Bank approved an €188 million loan to support the Government of Kenya’s efforts to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic and mitigate the related economic, health and social impacts.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
On 24 March, the Central Bank (1) lowered its policy rate by 100 bps to 7.25 %; (2) lowered banks’ cash reserve ratio by 100 bps to 4.25 %; (3) increased the maximum tenor of repurchase agreements from 28 to 91 days; and (4) announced flexibility to banks regarding loan classification and provisioning for loans that were performing on March 2, 2020, but were restructured due to the pandemic. The Central Bank has also encouraged banks to extend flexibility to borrowers’ loan terms based on pandemic-related circumstances and encouraged the waiving or reducing of charges on mobile money transactions to disincentivize the use of cash.

On April 15, the central bank suspended the listing of negative credit information for borrowers whose loans became non-performing after April 1 for six months. A new minimum threshold of $10 was set for negative credit information submitted to credit reference bureaus.

On April 29, the central bank lowered its policy rate by 25 bps to 7.0 %.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
A Covid-19 Emergency Response Fund has been formed accompanied by regulatory guidelines.

Kenya's executive has agreed to pay cuts as the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 continue to rise, President Uhuru Kenyatta announced on Wednesday. Kenyatta and his deputy will take an 80% pay cut, while their ministers and their assistants will take pay cuts ranging from 20% to 30%.

The Central Bank released Shs 7.4 billion (USD 69 million) to the government to support the fight against COVID-19. The bank explained that the money was an “exceptional and unbudgeted windfall” that came from the value of notes that were rendered worthless after the Shs 1000 note was demonetized last year.

On 2 April, the World Bank Group Board of Directors approved USD 50 million in immediate funding to support Kenya’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic under a new operation - the Kenya COVID -19 Emergency Response Project.

The Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions donated USD 19 million to the country’s coronavirus emergency fund from money that his office had seized from corrupt dealings in the past two years.

On 6 May 2020, The IMF approved USD 739 million under the Rapid Credit Facility (RCF) to meet Kenya’s urgent balance of payments need stemming from the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic.

20 May: The World Bank has approved USD 1 billion in budgetary support for Kenya as a means to close its fiscal financing gap, and also as a means to respond to the economic impact of Covid-19 on the country.
Budget adjustments
The government has earmarked funds for additional health expenditure, including enhanced surveillance, laboratory services, isolation units, equipment, supplies, and communication.

On 25 March, the government announced the disbursement of KES 1 billion (USD 9 million) for the recruitment of additional medical personnel.

Given lower revenues due to decreased economic activity and the need to accommodate emergency spending, the government is currently reassessing the budget deficit target for FY 2019/20.

29 April: To offset revenue losses, and re-direct funds towards coronavirus mitigation, the Treasury tabled a supplementary budget. A new budget line for Covid-19 response was allocated Ksh3.9 billion. In total, the Treasury says it allocated Ksh40.3 billion for pandemic-related expenditures.
Transparency, accountability and participation
29 April: Kenya’s Parliamentary Budget Office has warned that a significant proportion of reallocations may not be pandemic-related and were made contrary to PFM regulation.

11 May: The Community Health Services Bill came about after public participation.

6 May: To ensure that COVID-19 related resources are used for their intended purpose, the authorities undertake to conduct independent post-crisis auditing of COVID-19 related expenditures and publish the results. In addition, they are committed to implementing the recommendations of the latest safeguards assessment. Kenya’s capacity to repay the Fund is strong and public debt remainssustainable.

Business support and tax relief
Tax cuts have been provided to small businesses and corporations.
There has been a reduction in the turnover tax rate from 3% to 1% for micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises.
A reduction in corporate and personal income tax rates from 30% to 25%
The government has also earmarked funds for expediting payments of existing obligations to maintain cash flow for businesses during the crisis.
Worker and social assistance
Tax relief for low income earners (earning up to USD 240).
A reduction in the VAT rate from 16% to 14% with effect from 1 April 2020
Suspension of the country’s three credit reference bureaus, which among them have about 2.5 million Kenyans negatively listed and unable to obtain credit from banks or fintech apps, beginning 1 April.
The National Treasury appropriated an additional Ksh10 billion (USD100 million) for supporting the elderly, orphans and other vulnerable members through Kenya’s relatively well-developed cash transfer system.
Fee waivers on person-person mobile money transactions on M-PESA were approved.
100% tax relief for persons earning less than Ksh.24,000 is planned.

Lesotho

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
2
Confirmed deaths
Regulatory response and containment strategy
A State of Emergency has been declared.
30 April 2020: The lockdown was extended to 5 May. These restrictions have since been eased slightly.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
Official COVID-19 links
https://www.gov.ls/about-coronavirus-covid-19/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
155
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
11%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
19%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
11%

Domestic and external financing
On 17 April, Econet Telecom Lesotho with the Government of Lesotho through the National Command Centre launched channels to solicit donations towards the COVID-19 pandemic.

On 23 April, it was announced that the Governor of the Central Bank will be approaching the International Monetary Fund (IMF) on possible balance of payments support under the provisions for COVID-19.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
On 23 March, following an extraordinary meeting of the Monetary Policy Committee, the Central Bank of Lesotho (CBL) announced (i) an increase of the NIR target floor from USD 630 million to USD 660 million, and (ii) a reduction of the CBL policy rate by 100 basis points from 6.25 to 5.25%.

On 13 April, banks and insurance companies were asked to suspend loan repayments for three months, and insurance companies asked to suspend instalment payments. The implementation of Basel II.5 was postponed to free up funds that would otherwise go towards additional capital buffers.

On 14 April, the Central Bank of Lesotho reduced the policy rate by a further 100 basis points from 5.25% to 4.25%.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
SADC Member States have established National Emergency Operations Centres to facilitate coordination of logistics and stockpiling for disasters at the national level. The SADC Pooled Procurement Services for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies is being implemented to provide sustainable availability and access to affordable and effective essential medicine and health commodities, and Member States have been encouraged to utilise this facility for the procurement of the needed supplies for prevention, treatment and control of COVID-19 and any other epidemics.

At a Cabinet meeting on 6 May it was decided that all COVID-19 support be placed under the direct control of Disaster Management Authority (DMA). It was also proposed that the DMA should be established into an independent entity not a department for proper governance and accountability since it already operates with a board.
Budget adjustments
On 13 April, the Prime Minister’s speech unveiled updated fiscal measures of M1.2 billion to support food security and to assist those most affected by the crisis. M500 million of that goes to a Contributory Fund that the government has started.

At a Cabinet meeting on 6 May, it was recommended that consideration be given to reallocating the construction of sports facilities for the Commonwealth Games to financing of COVID-19 interventions. It was also proposed that all the reductions proposed by the Committee be directed towards purchasing and/or improving the government fleet of ambulances to the required standard for ferrying Coronavirus patients.

On 23 April, the Prime Minister noted that the Disaster Relief Fund which has a budget of M698 million will be used to fight COVID-19.
Transparency, accountability and participation
l

Business support and tax relief
As part of the fiscal measures announced on 13 April, M200 million will be spent on agriculture for food production. The government will also pay business rentals in May and defer certain taxes until September. The country is also improving credit facilities for SMEs, guaranteeing 75% of principal rather than 50%.

On 23 April, the Prime Minister announced a M500 million fund to support private businesses
Worker and social assistance
As part of the fiscal measues announced on 13 April, social protection schemes will be expanded. Existing cash transfers, such as the Child Grant Program will be topped-up. Public assistance will be expanded for 3 months, to add vulnerable groups such as children, elderly disabled, and those working in the informal sector.

On 23 April, it was announced that Lesotho's 45 000 factory workers would each be given M800 monthly payments by the government over the "next two or three months" to enable them to meet some of their basic needs. That money would be separate from the M500 million earmarked for businesses.

Liberia

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
296
Confirmed deaths
27
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 21 March, a State of Emergency was declared. On 10 April, 15 cities were quarantined. As of 25 April, the president of Liberia has extended the lockdown until mid-May 2020.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
On 13 April, President Weah announced that anticipated financing to cover food relief, healthcare and other areas is USD 40 million (1.2% of GDP).
Official COVID-19 links
http://moh.gov.lr/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
19
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
3,86
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
47%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
3,86

Domestic and external financing
In March, the World Bank has to date approved USD1.5 million of financing (which is yet to be utilized). Areas of concentration under the plan include support to health care workers, purchase and rehabilitation of health care equipment, procurement of drugs and other medical supplies, deployment of surge staff to contact tracing activities, border areas, rapid response teams, training of responders, planning, communications and information sharing, staffing and equipping of laboratories, and logistical and supply support.

On 9 April, the World Bank approved additional USD 7.5 million International Development Association (IDA) financing to help Liberia respond to the threat posed by the Coronavirus outbreak. The financing consists of a $3.75 million grant and $3.75 million concessional IDA credit.

Liberia is included in the list of 25 nations to which the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has offered a pardon on debt servicing through the Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust. As of 13 April, the IMF has offered debt relief to Liberia of USD 15.92 million.

17 April: An Emergency COVID-19 Relief Fund will be established at commercial to complement Liberian Government's purchase of necessaries such as food, medicines, face masks and face shields for vulnerable people, and testing kits, personal protection equipment and other protective gears for contact tracers and health workers. The Relief Fund shall be funded by assessment of 25% of the net salaries of all employed persons (both in the private and public sectors) for two months (May and June, 2020). Payment to the Emergency COVID-19 Fund shall be made in the same manner as payroll taxes are collected through the Liberia Revenue Authority as the intermediary; and all moneys collected by the Liberia Revenue Authority shall be deposited into the account(s) established at the commercial bank(s) designated by the Minister of Finance and Development Planning.


The African Development Bank is preparing a significant budget support operation under the COVID-19 Response Facility which was approved on April 8.

11 May: The United States Government has committed USD 1 million in health funds to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in Liberia.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
7 May: No changes to monetary policy are envisaged at this stage, as the shortage of Liberian dollar banknotes coupled with the lack of confidence in the banking system precludes any meaningful response to the pandemic using monetary policy instruments. In mitigation of this situation, the CBL is expediting the procurement of additional banknotes to help meet the Liberian dollar demand in the economy. In response to the difficulties being felt by the private sector, the CBL is also allowing banks to practice limited forbearance on asset classification, provisioning, and lending policies in hard-hit sectors of the economy, while remaining vigilant for signs of banking sector stress.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
Budget adjustments
By 14 April, the Government of Liberia had provided USD500,000, as support to the fight against the COVID 19 outbreak.

15 April: President George Weah is requesting the Legislature to re-appropriate USD 25 million for the remainder of the 2019/2020 budget year in support of the government's stimulus package to facilitate food distribution for designated households for 60 days.
Transparency, accountability and participation
7 April: The Central Bank and ministry of Finance and Development Planning intend to conduct a post-crisis audit of the expenditure by an independent auditor.

Business support and tax relief
Worker and social assistance
Government switched to take home meals, an approach they used during Ebola alongside their neighbor Sierra Leone

Libya

Tests p/million
16
Confirmed cases
168
Confirmed deaths
5
Regulatory response and containment strategy
As of April 29, the country's borders have been closed, and strict measures have been put in place (such as a curfew and partial lockdown of some economic sectors) to curb the spread of Covid-19.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
15 April: The Government of National Accord (GNA) announced a package of LD 500 million (USD 355 million) (about 1 % of GDP) in emergency COVID-19 related spending. The exact nature and use of this spending is yet to be specified, but it is believed to be aimed at supporting the medical system in expanding testing and responding to a possible surge in infections, once the coronavirus arrives in Libya.
Official COVID-19 links

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
397
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
37%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)

Domestic and external financing
Monetary and macrofinancial measures

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
On 15 March, a decree was passed banning export of personal protective equipment.
Budget adjustments
April 8: As a means to bolster the funds available to the Libyan state, the GNA has announced a pay cut to all civil servants of up to 20%, which is expected to be reallocated to other necessities within the budget.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
Worker and social assistance

Madagascar

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
826
Confirmed deaths
6
Regulatory response and containment strategy
A Public Health Emergency has been declared. As of 21 April, lockdown restrictions in the country have eased.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
10 April: While the exact financing requirement associated with mitigating the health and economic impact of the crisis was not found to be available, it is estimate that the budget deficit will increase to 2% of GDP (from an expected surplus of about 1.1% before the shock).
Official COVID-19 links

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
43
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
18%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
22%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
18%

Domestic and external financing
On 3 April, SDR 122.2 million was provided by the IMF through its Rapid Credit Facility.

On March 12, the World Bank provided a grant of USD 3.7 million to strengthen prevention against the COVID-19 pandemic, purchase materials and equipment, and train health workers. On April 2, 2020, the World Bank approved USD 100 million Development Policy Operation (DPO) for budget support to improve the human capital.

Madagascar is included in the list of 25 nations to which the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has offered a pardon on debt servicing through the Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust.

Madagascar has been granted a loan through the IMF rapid credit facility of USD 165.99 million, and was relieved of a further USD 4.19 million.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
On the payments side, to better facilitate the use of electronic payments, the CBL has suspended fees and charges for most electronic transfers and point-of-sale outlets used by merchants and mobile money operators; and increased allowable daily limits. The bank has also increased the allowable daily and aggregate limits for mobile money transactions for a period of three months.

May 7: The central bank provided monetary policy support and acted to safeguard financial stability. The central bank has started to provide liquidity to the private sector, planning up to MGA 620 billion (USD 162 million or 1.2 % of GDP) to allow banks to defer delayed payments on existing loans and increase lending to businesses. There is also some evidence to suggest that the central bank has intervened in the exchange rate market slightly, although the extent of this intervention is unknown.

On 8 May, the central bank announced that all policy rates would remain unchanged, but that attention would be paid to the ever-changing nature of the economic impact of Covid-19 on Madagascar when deciding future rate changes.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
10 April: In the context of the IMF's support and as resources will be redirected by the central bank to the Treasury, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the central bank and the government will be signed. The MoU signed by the central bank and the ministry of economy and finance in the context of the ECF (part of the disbursement with the first review was used for budget support) will be updated and signed. It will specify (i) the maintenance of a specific government account at the central bank to receive IMF resources; (ii) the requirement that the government should hold foreign exchange balances only with the central bank; and (iii) the establishment of a clear framework agreement between the central bank and the ministry on responsibilities for servicing financial obligations.

15 April: SADC Member States have established National Emergency Operations Centres to facilitate coordination of logistics and stockpiling for disasters at the national level. The SADC Pooled Procurement Services for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies is being implemented to provide sustainable availability and access to affordable and effective essential medicine and health commodities, and Member States have been encouraged to utilise this facility for the procurement of the needed supplies for prevention, treatment and control of COVID-19 and any other epidemics.
Budget adjustments
The government is working on a revised budget law that will consider additional fiscal and support measures and increased spending on epidemic prevention and control.
Transparency, accountability and participation
10 April: As part of the support from the IMF, the authorities have committed to transparency on the planning, using, monitoring and reporting of additional health spending, whose modalities will be discussed with the World Bank and other donors.

Business support and tax relief
Tax relief, suspension of government fees and waived social contributions.
Worker and social assistance
Cash-transfers and in-kind necessities will be provided to the poorest and those unemployed

President Andry Rajoelina has introduced a “social emergency plan” that includes food and cash disbursements (of USD 2.7m) for those unable to work due to the lockdowns imposed on Antananarivo and Toamasina.

Malawi

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
336
Confirmed deaths
4
Regulatory response and containment strategy
A State of Disaster has been declared. On 18 April, A 3-week national lockdown was due to commence but was overturned following protest.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
March: A multi-sectoral response plan is estimated at USD 213 million, with an immediate need for USD 29 million.

By May, the government’s response plan has been updated to include USD 20 million (0.25 % of GDP) in spending on healthcare and targeted social assistance programmes; this includes hiring 2000 additional health care workers.

Official COVID-19 links
https://www.health.gov.mw/index.php/downloads/category/7-covid19-information

http://www.covid19.health.gov.mw/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
32
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
9,83%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
11%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
9,83%

Domestic and external financing
Malawi’s president and cabinet will take a 10% salary cut and redirect the money towards the fight against coronavirus.

On 15 April, the World Bank approved USD 7 million in immediate funding to support Malawi’s response under a new Malawi COVID-19 Emergency Response and Health Systems Preparedness project. In addition to the new operation, USD 30 million has been made available from the Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Financing with a Catastrophe Deferred Drawdown Option (Cat-DDO) to strengthen the country’s response to the pandemic.

By 27 March, the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) has provided approximately 1.7 billion Kwacha (USD 2.3 million) to UNICEF to strengthen Malawi’s capacity to prevent a COVID-19 outbreak.

Malawi is included in the list of 25 nations to which the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has offered a pardon on debt servicing through the Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust of USD 9.85 million.

As of 1 May, the IMF has loaned Malawi USD 91 million through its rapid credit facility.

2 May: While the World Bank first released USD 7 million to Malawi in immediate relief funding, it then released an additional USD 97 million into the Covid-19 relief effort of Malawi.

15 May: The Global Partnership for Education approved an accelerated funding request of USD 10 million, with a 7% agency fee for UNICEF (the grant agent in this case).
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
The President also directed the central bank to “cushion the foreign exchange market to ensure availability of forex and stability of the foreign exchange rate,” and work on an emergency liquidity assistance framework to support banks in the event of worsening liquidity conditions.

The decision by the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) of the Reserve Bank of Malawi (RBM) to slash the Liquidity Reserve Requirement (LRR) has instantly made available MWK12-billion into the banking system.

The domestic currency Liquidity Reserve Requirement (LRR) has been reduced by 125 basis points to 3.75 % (aligned with the foreign currency LRR) and the Lombard Rate has been reduced by 50 % to 0.2 %age points above the policy rate. An Emergency Liquidity Assistance (ELA) framework has been introduced to support banks in the event of worsening liquidity conditions and to provide support to banks on a case-by-case basis. However, financial sector buffers, including banks’ capital and liquidity buffers, are expected to counter risks to the banking system. To support small and medium enterprises (SMEs), commercial banks and micro-finance institutions will be, on a case-by-case basis, restructuring SME loans and providing a three-month moratorium on their debt service. Fees on mobile money transactions have been temporarily waived to encourage cashless transactions. (Completed, 2020-05-07)

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
end-April: The Ministry of Industry and Trade has challenged local manufacturers to rise to the occasion by engaging in import substitution amid the COVID-19 outbreak that has affected regional and global trade. In an interview, the ministry’s Principal Secretary Ken Ndala said local manufacturers have opportunity to produce for the local market, especially when the raw materials are sourced locally.

7 May: The Ministry of Health has adopted a national tool developed by UNICEF for tracking supplies of personal protective equipment, medical equipment and medicines available in-country. This tool will assist with mapping and tracking of these supplies. Based on the samples submitted by the local suppliers, latex gloves, apron plastic, heavy-duty gloves, surgical masks and N95 masks will be procured locally.

end-April: SADC Member States have established National Emergency Operations Centres to facilitate coordination of logistics and stockpiling for disasters at the national level. The SADC Pooled Procurement Services for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies is being implemented to provide sustainable availability and access to affordable and effective essential medicine and health commodities, and Member States have been encouraged to utilise this facility for the procurement of the needed supplies for prevention, treatment and control of COVID-19 and any other epidemics.

20 May: In addition clearing arrears to inject liquidity into the economy, to prevent future arrears, procedures have been implemented that require Ministry of Finance vetting and registration of contract sums against available funding before contract signing.
Budget adjustments
The government’s response plan includes US$20 million (0.25 % of GDP) in spending on health care and targeted social assistance programs. The details of the plan are still being refined.
Transparency, accountability and participation
20 May: Regular publication of procurement documentation (including tenders, bids, and names of awarded companies, products or services procured and their costs) on the Public Procurement and Disposal of Assets (PPDA) website continued during the lockdown.

20 May: To ensure enhanced transparency and accountability of COVID-19 related spending, the PPDA will also publish the names of owners of the awarded companies and conduct and publish a thorough ex-post validation of delivery. 20 May: The Ministry of Finance will publish quarterly statements on commitments and payments of COVID-19 related activities, specify COVID-19 related costs in the published monthly salary report and in their budget funding and cash management analysis.

20 May: The National Audit Office will submit quarterly audits of COVID-19 related spending to the Minister of Finance (for submission to Cabinet) and, once the pandemic abates, will publish and submit to Parliament a comprehensive audit of COVID-19-related spending.

Business support and tax relief
The Government has announced a number of measures aimed at cushioning small- and medium-sized businesses, including tax breaks, a reduction in fuel prices and an increase in risk allowances for health workers.

The government will also increase loans under the Malawi Enterprise Development Fund that will help micro, small and medium scale businesses that have been seriously affected by the pandemic to 15 billion Malawi kwacha ($20.69 million) from 12 billion kwacha

President Mutharika also ordered tobacco markets to be opened and allowed to operate without disruption to protect small farmers and bolster foreign currency receipts.

The Reserve Bank of Malawi has instructed banks to offer a three-month moratorium on interest payments on loans to small- and medium-sized businesses.

Tax waivers will be granted on imports of essential goods to manage and contain the pandemic. An Emergency Cash Transfer Program of about $50 million (0.6 % of GDP), mostly financed by development partners, will be implemented during May-November 2020 to support small businesses in major urban areas. (Completed 2020-05-07)
Worker and social assistance

Mali

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
1315
Confirmed deaths
78
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 25 March, A State of Emergency was declared, with Curfew from 9pm to 5am.

As of 7 May, the Minister of Health and Social Affairs announced that these curfew restrictions had been phased out, and replaced by social distancing practices.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
Official COVID-19 links
http://www.sante.gov.ml/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
25
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
5,43%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
35%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
5,43%

Domestic and external financing
On 6 April the United Nations provided support of approximately USD 7 million, some of which is in-kind support.

On 10 April, The World Bank has approved a USD25.8 million International Development Association 50 % grant and 50% credit to support Mali’s response to Covid-19.

Mali is included in the list of 25 nations to which the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has offered a pardon on debt servicing through the Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust.

On 31 March, the Prime Minister's announced the creation of a Special Solidarity Fund to fight against Covid-19.

As of 30 April, the IMF has offered Mali rapid credit facility relief to the tune of USD 166 Million, and a further USD 10 Million worth of debt pardon.

28 April: The European Union has announced additional support to Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger, of 194 million Euros. This comes after the EU pledged to mobilise 449 million Euros earlier on in April for the same 5 countries
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
The regional central bank (BCEAO) for the West-African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) has taken preemptive steps to better satisfy banks’ demand for liquidity and mitigate the negative impact of the pandemic on economic activity. The BCEAO adopted a full allotment strategy at a fixed rate of 2.5 % (the minimum monetary policy rate) thereby allowing banks to satisfy their liquidity needs fully at a rate about 25 basis lower than before the crisis. The BCEAO had also announced: (i) an extension of the collateral framework to access central bank refinancing to include bank loans to prequalified 1,700 private companies; (ii) a framework inviting banks and microfinance institutions to accommodate demands from customers with Covid19-related repayment difficulties to postpone for a 3 month renewable period debt service falling due, without the need to classify such postponed claims as non performing; and (iii) measures to promote the use of electronic payments. In addition, the BCEAO launched a special 3-month refinancing window at a fixed rate of 2.5 % for limited amounts of 3-month "Covid-19 T-Bills" to be issued by each WAEMU sovereign to help meet funding needs related to the current pandemic. (Completed 2020-05-07)

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
On April 27, Heads of States of the West-Africa Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) adopted a Declaration suspending temporarily the application of the Union’s Pact for Convergence, Stability, Growth and Solidarity among its member-countries. This suspension will allow member-countries to raise their overall fiscal deficit temporarily and use the additional external support provided by donors in response to the Covid-19 crisis.
Budget adjustments
On March 17, 2020, the President of the Republic announced the availability of an envelope of 6.3 billion CFA (USD 10.4 million) to fight against the Coronavirus pandemic. An action plan for the prevention and response to COVID-19 has been developed by the Government. This plan is budgeted up to 3.3 billion FCFA and revolves around prevention and management, that is to say the response.

By 23 April, the health response plan had been revised upwards to 0.5 % of GDP to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and strengthen its medical care capacity, in collaboration with the World Health Organization.
Transparency, accountability and participation
7 May: Authorities commit to quarterly reporting of all COVID-19 spending, the commission of an independent and robust third-party audit of this spending in a year's time, and to publish its results. The Government will also publish regularly on its website documentation on large public procurement projects, together with ex-post validation of delivery along with the name of awarded companies and the name of their beneficial owner(s)

Business support and tax relief
No official measures taken by the Government in favor of enterprises. However, meetings between the Minister of Health and Social Welfare, the Prime Minister and the National Employers Council took place.

A package of economic measures was also announced to ease liquidity constraints on ailing firms, including an SMEs-support guarantee fund, clearing the budget spending float, granting tax deferral and relief to ease liquidity constraints on the hardest-hit companies, especially in the hospitality sector (hotels, restaurants, transportation). (Completed 2020-05-07)
Worker and social assistance
The setup of a special fund to provide targeted income support to the poorest households, a mass distribution of grain and food for livestock to poorest households, the supply of electricity and water free of charge to the poorest consumers for the months of April and May 2020, a 3-month exemption from VAT on electricity and water tariffs, and a 3-month exemption from customs duties on the import of basic food (rice and milk). (Completed, 2020-05-07)

Mauritania

Tests p/million
128
Confirmed cases
588
Confirmed deaths
23
Regulatory response and containment strategy
The government has taken stringent containment measures to limit the spread of the virus, including suspension of of all non- essential business and a curfew from 6pm to 6am.

April 2020: The curfew has lightened and now runs from 9pm - 6am, given very low incidence of Covid-19 in the country.

6 May: The curfew was modified to run from 11pm to 6am. Public markets re-opened on 7 May and Friday prayers resumed on 8 May.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
29 April: Balance of payments need stemming from the COVID-19 crisis are estimated at USD 370 million. USD 210 is required in additional health, medical supplies, social protection, SME support, foodstuff stocks, and security-related expenditures to address the pandemic (3.2% of GDP).
Official COVID-19 links
http://www.sante.gov.mr/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
60
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
5,53%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
51%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
5,53%

Domestic and external financing
On 2 April, The World Bank Board of Executive Directors approved a USD5.2 million grant from the International Development Association to support Mauritania in strengthening the national public health preparedness to the COVID-19 pandemic. This new project complements $2 million of support provided under the existing Regional Disease Surveillance Systems Enhancement (REDISSE III) project for the national COVID-19 response plan.

The government on March 25 announced the creation of an emergency fund of about USD 80 million (1.1 % of GDP) for urgent procurements of medical supplies and equipment; subsidies to 30,000 poor households; and financial support to small individual businesses.

To help provide much-needed resources for health services and social protection programs, the IMF Board on April 23, 2020 granted to Mauritania an emergency financing of SDR 95.68 million (about $130 million) under the Rapid Credit Facility. The country has also appealed to development partners for additional financing.

28 April: The European Union has announced additional support to Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger, of 194 million Euros. This comes after the EU pledged to mobilise 449 million Euros earlier on in April for the same 5 countries
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
To ease liquidity conditions and support the financing of the economy, the Central Bank has reduced the policy rate from 6.5 % to 5 %; marginal lending rate from 9 % to 6.5 %; and banks’ reserve requirements from 7 % to 5 %.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
Budget adjustments
The government is expected to announce soon a large set of measures to further address the pandemic and support the population and the economy, including financial assistance to negatively impacted people and businesses.
Transparency, accountability and participation
29 April: The Government is committed to full transparency in the use of resources deployed for the emergency response, to channel all spending through the budget (including the social assistance fund), and to track, account for, and report in a transparent manner. To help deter misappropriation of crisis mitigation funds and assist fundraising from donors, the authorities will set up a supervisory committee for the social assistance fund and will ask the Court of Accounts to audit crisis mitigation spending once the crisis abates and to publish the results. They will also publish information on the Ministry of Finance’s website regarding public procurement contracts related to crisis mitigation, the names of the awarded companies and their beneficial owners, and ex-poste validation of delivery.

Business support and tax relief
Worker and social assistance
Measures to mitigate the socio-economic impact of these decisions are being implemented, such as the exemption of 174,707 households from paying electricity bills for two months. On April 8, the army started food distribution to vulnerable households in Nouakchott.

Mauritius

Tests p/million
6510
Confirmed cases
335
Confirmed deaths
10
Regulatory response and containment strategy
A state of emergency has been announced and the country has been in lockdown since 20 March. On 9 April, the lockdown was extended until 4 May.

Lockdown was extended from May 4 to 1 June.

11 May: The government has issued strict, detailed guidelines for public transporation as it prepares to resume certain economic activities from 15 May.

COVID-19: expected financing requirement
The authorities have announced plans to increase public health spending by Rs 208 million (0.04% of GDP), with half already disbursed. There are a range of other fiscal support measures including an additional Rs 4 billion (0.8 % GDP) in financing.
Official COVID-19 links
http://www.covid19.mu/

http://mof.govmu.org/English/Covid-19/Pages/default.aspx

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
532
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
9,96%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
48%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
9,96%

Domestic and external financing
30 March: Through the Finance and Audit (COVID-19 Solidarity Fund) Regulations 2020, Government has set up a COVID-19 Solidarity Fund to provide support to the population and the community at large who are being affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.

22 May: The African Development Bank has approved a €188 mllion euro loan to the Republic of Mauritius to finance a national budget support programme to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Group’s Board of Directors said Friday.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
The Bank of Mauritius (BOM) reduced the Key Repo Rate from 3.35 % to 2.85 % on March 10. On March 13, the BOM also adopted a set of measures focused on economic operators which are being directly impacted by COVID-19, including: i) reduction of cash reserve ratio - lower cash reserve ratio from 9 to 8 %; ii) special relief amount of Rs 5 billion (1 % or GDP) - special credit line for affected firms to be administered via the commercial banks to meet affected operators’ cash flow and working capital requirements; iii) moratorium on capital repayment for loans - commercial banks will provide a moratorium of six months on capital repayment for existing loans of affected economic operators; iv) easing of banking guidelines - the BOM also eased supervisory guidelines on handling credit impairments and v) savings bonds - Rs 5 billion (1 % of GDP) of 2.5 % two-year BOM bonds which will be made available to retail investors. On March 23, BOM announced additional support measures: i) support to households - six-month moratorium on household loans at commercial banks, while BOM will bear interest payments for households with the lowest income; ii) Special Foreign Currency (USD) Line of Credit ($300 million) - targeting operators having foreign currency earnings, including SMEs; iii) Swap arrangement to support import-oriented businesses (initial amount $100 million); and iv) Shared ATM Services - waving ATM fees during national confinement period.

On 16 April, the repo rate was cut further from 2.85% to 1.85%.

On 21 May, while the repo rate remained the same as it was in April, the central bank in Mauritius decided to intervene in the foreign exchange market in order to restore the purchasing power of the domestic currency.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
SADC Member States have established National Emergency Operations Centres to facilitate coordination of logistics and stockpiling for disasters at the national level. The SADC Pooled Procurement Services for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies is being implemented to provide sustainable availability and access to affordable and effective essential medicine and health commodities, and Member States have been encouraged to utilise this facility for the procurement of the needed supplies for prevention, treatment and control of COVID-19 and any other epidemics.

The Minister of Finance, Economic Planning and Development constituted the COVID-19 Managing Committee.

Hand sanitiser, other breathing appliances and gas masks, excluding protective masks having neither mechanical parts nor replaceable filters, and protective masks are being made zero-rated for VAT purposes. According to MRA, the measure will cost around Rs 5.5 million on a yearly basis.

13 May: COVID-19 and the Quarantine Bills were introduced into the National Assembly.
Budget adjustments
On 13 March it was announced, additional funds of Rs 208 million are being made available to the Ministry of Health and Wellness for the acquisition of new medical accessories and equipment, of which Rs 108 million have already been disbursed.

There are a range of other fiscal support measures including an additional Rs 4 billion (0.8 % GDP) in spending/financing.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
The State Investment Corporation will raise Rs 2.7 billion (0.5 % of GDP) to make equity investments in troubled firms.

Government is waiving the fees payable by sellers of vegetables, haberdashery and general merchandise in markets around the island during the curfew period.

On 13 March it was announced, to support to economic operators, across all sectors of activities including local manufacturing and SMEs will require mobilisation of Rs 9 billion, out of which Rs 1 billion will be from the Consolidated Fund and the remaining Rs 8 billion from Public Bodies.

The Development Bank of Mauritius will give Rs 200 million (0.04 % of GDP) in credit for firms short on cash.

Affected firms will receive extra tax deductions.

Government has implement a Wage Assistance Scheme during the COVID-19 Curfew Period through the Mauritius Revenue Authority (MRA). Every business in the private sector will be entitled to receive an amount equivalent to the 15 days’ basic wage bill for all of its employees subject to a cap.

Eligible Self-Employed individuals will receive a financial support of Rs 5,100 (i.e. 50% of Guaranteed Income) for the period 16th March 2020 to 15th April 2020.

In addition to the moratorium of 6 months on capital repayments, eligible MSMEs will also benefit from a moratorium of 6 months on interest payments on their existing loans with Commercial Banks.
Worker and social assistance
All labor contracts set to expire this year are extended through December 3, 2020. The government will also introduce a Wage Support Scheme to limit the socio-economic impact of COVID-19 by providing financial support to employees who would become unemployed on a temporary basis.

Funds of an amount of Rs 2.6 billion will be provided under the Wage Assistance Scheme.

Morocco

Tests p/million
260
Confirmed cases
7833
Confirmed deaths
205
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 20 March, the Moroccan government declared a State of Health Emergency. This has included closing airports, schools, mosques, cafés and shops, with the exception of food markets.

18 May: The state of health emergency is extended for three weeks, until 10 June.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
7 May: Moroccan authorities have authorised a special Covid relief fund, which amounts to 2.7% of national GDP, and will be financed by a mixture of government and voluntary contributions.
Official COVID-19 links
http://www.covidmaroc.ma/Pages/AccueilAR.aspx

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
218
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
9%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
49%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
9%

Domestic and external financing
On 6 April, it was announced that Morocco's government will suspend its USD 3 billion foreign-debt ceiling, allowing it to borrow more money as it tries to respond to the coronavirus crisis.

The EU has granted €450 million to Morocco to help with its emergency fiscal package.

On April 7, the Moroccan authorities purchased all available resources (about USD 3 billion) under the Precautionary and Liquidity Line (PLL) arrangement with the IMF. The authorities will use funds to cope with the social and economic impact of COVID-19 and to maintain strong external buffers.

King Mohammed VI launched the Special Fund for Management and Response to COVID-19 earlier this month. The fund initially held USD 1 billion, a figure that more than doubled thanks to donations from public and private sector institutions, as well as individuals. Fund donors include King Mohammed VI, government officials, and several banks. Morocco’s Ministry of Economy launched an SMS messaging option for anyone wishing to contribute to national efforts under the fund.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
On 19 March, the central bank reduced the policy rate by 25 bps to 2.0%.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
End-April: The Moroccan government has launched a new economic monitoring committee to follow the developments of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak and mitigate its impact on the national economy. The new committee will develop measures and mechanisms to closely follow up on the developments of the epidemic and find ways to support the economic sectors directly affected by the global health threat, notably tourism and transport. Chaired by Minister of Economy.

12 May: According to a circular issued by the Ministry of Economy and Finance, Ministries and the High Commission, a single portal for administrative correspondence, was created to allow administrations and citizens to interact with administration and send their administrative correspondence remotely. bAn electronic administrative correspondence service has also been set up to manage incoming and outgoing mail, as well as those exchanged between internal services at the central and decentralised levels of administrations and to enable administrations to dematerialise administrative documents, electronic signature and workflow management. All public administrations will be able to use this application for free , in addition to that, the agency of digital development offer personalized assistance according to the specific needs of each other, in parallel training is provided remotely to help users to take full advantage of these solutions.
Budget adjustments
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
On March 16, the Economic Monitoring Committee CVE announced that all companies with an annual turnover of less than MAD 20 million can, if they wish, postpone their tax payment deadlines from March 31 to the end of June. Moroccan companies with an annual turnover equal to or higher than MAD 20 million ($2 million) can request a postponement of their tax payment deadlines.

Companies can benefit from the suspension of social security contributions
for the period from March 1 to June 30, 2020 with graceful remission of late
payment increases for this period for employers in difficulty, affiliated to the
Caisse Nationale de Securite Sociale (CNSS). The CNSS will ensure transfer
of family allowance/child allowance and reimbursements of medical expenses
through the CNSS Compulsory Health Insurance (Assurance Maladie
Obligatoire)

On 24 April, the Moroccan insurance supervisor relaxed some provisioning requirements to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on the insurance sector.

12 May: The launch of the product DAMANE OXYGENE, a guarantee product put in place by MEFRA with the Caisse Centrale de Garantie (CCG), aims to provide coverage for an exceptional overdraft up to 95% for SMEs and mid-sized companies with a turnover of between 200 million and 500 million DH, and whose activities have been impacted by the crisis
Worker and social assistance
End-April: Employees registered under the National Social Security Fund (CNSS) will benefit from a MAD 2,000 (USD 200) monthly stipend, in addition to family allowances and health coverage. Meanwhile, workers in the informal sector who cannot practice their activity due to the lockdown will receive compensation through the National Medical Assistance Program (RAMED). Households of two people or less will receive MAD 800 (USD 80) monthly, while households of three to four people will receive MAD 1,000 (USD 100). Households of more than four members will benefit from MAD 1,200 (USD 120) monthly.

End-April: The Economic Watch Committee (Comité de veille économique) (CVE) decided to activate a mobile payment device to transfer cash to workers operating in the informal sector adversely affected by COVID-19 (only for those who have been directly affected by the confinement. The electronic cash transfer program will reach half of the informal sector workers (estimated 3 million workers to receive payment). The speed and scale is facilitated by the use of a health insurance fee waiver registry in the first phase and a simple payment mechanism.

end-April: Formal employees who lose their jobs and are registered with the pension fund will receive 2,000 dirhams ($203) a month (MAD1,000 for March, MAD2,000 for April, May and June) and defer debt payments until 30 June.

Mozambique

Tests p/million
24
Confirmed cases
254
Confirmed deaths
2
Regulatory response and containment strategy
30 March: A State of Emergency has been declared for the month of April.

30 April: an extension to the state of emergency was issued until 30 May 2020.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
Official COVID-19 links
https://covid19.ins.gov.mz/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
33
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
8,35%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
7,67%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
8,35%

Domestic and external financing
The Government of Mozambique has asked for USD 700 million from development partners to help combat the negative impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Mozambique is included in the list of 25 nations to which the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has offered a pardon on debt servicing through the Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust

On 27 April, the IMF has provided Mozambique with a loan equivalent to USD 309 Million, under their rapid credit facility. This is earmarked for the healthcare sectors, as well as for support to SMMEs within the country.

6 May: The EU is expected to provide 110 million Euros to assist Mozambique in their Covid-19 containment measures.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
On 22 March, the Bank of Mozambique announced measures to enhance liquidity in foreign and national currency, including a USD 500 million credit line for banks and relaxation of conditions for restructuring debts of bank customers to mitigate the effects of Covid-19.

With effect from 7 April, the reserve ratio was reduced from 13% to 11.5% in local currency and from 36% to 34.5% in foreign currency.

On 29 April, the central bank introduced a requirement requiring exporters to exchange 30% of their forex proceeds into domestic currency.

On 30 March, the central bank announced measures to easy payment system transactions and liquidity conditions by: (i) lowering fees and charges for digital transactions through commercial banks, mobile banking and e-currency, for three months, and (ii) waiving specific provision on foreign currency loans, until 31 December. The central bank reduced the policy rate by 150 basispoints to 11.25% on 16 April.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
15 April: The Government is monitoring prices of essential goods for preventing price gouging and redirecting the industrial sector toward the production of goods necessary for the prevention and mitigation of the Covid-19 pandemic.

15 April: Simplified licensing for the import of essential goods and total exemption from customs duties and miscellaneous taxes on imports of medicines and reagents, as well as, all the COVID-19 prevention material.

7 May: A committee with special powers to make resource allocation decisions has been created.

7 May: An exceptional public procurement regime has been announced for the purchase of urgent goods and services necessary to control and combat the pandemic.

15 April: SADC Member States have established National Emergency Operations Centres to facilitate coordination of logistics and stockpiling for disasters at the national level. The SADC Pooled Procurement Services for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies is being implemented to provide sustainable availability and access to affordable and effective essential medicine and health commodities, and Member States have been encouraged to utilise this facility for the procurement of the needed supplies for prevention, treatment and control of COVID-19 and any other epidemics.
Budget adjustments
The health budget has been revised upwards from USD 30 million to USD 50 million this year.

To mitigate the impact of COVID-19, the Council of Ministers approved by Decree 12/2020 of 2 April, a set of fiscal meaures to safeguard human life, public health and the functioning of services, which will be in force during the State of Emergency.
Transparency, accountability and participation
24 April: The authorities will undertake independent audits of crisis-mitigation spending and related procurement processes once the pandemic abates and will publish the audited results. In the interim, they will publish the related large public procurement contracts and their beneficiaries.

Business support and tax relief
On 30 March, the President announced the need to adopt fiscal and monetary policy measures to support the private sector to address the economic impact of the pandemic.

Extension of the Decree on Exemption from Payment of Charges (Fines, Interest, tax enforcement) resulting from the delay in paying tax obligations until December 2020.
Worker and social assistance

Namibia

Tests p/million
142
Confirmed cases
25
Confirmed deaths
Regulatory response and containment strategy
A state of emergency has been declared. A partial lockdown was extended on 15 April to 4 May.

On May 4, domestic travel restrictions were relaxed, with international travel still completely restricted.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
On 1 April, the government launched the 8 billion Namibian Dollar Economic Stimulus and Relief Package to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 (USD 425 million or 4.25 % of GDP).
Official COVID-19 links
http://www.mhss.gov.na/corona

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
600
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
14%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
7,72%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
14%

Domestic and external financing
25 April: The EU has donated 8.4 million Euros to Namibia as a means to assist with it's (Namibia's) response to Covid-19.

Monetary and macrofinancial measures
The central bank reduced the policy rate by 100 basis points to 5.25 % on March 20.

The Bank of Namibia (BoN) introduced regulatory and policy relief measures to directly support individuals, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and corporations to manage the impact of the drought and the COVID-19 pandemic on business cash flows and continuity; as well as safeguard jobs. These include 6-24 months discretionary loan payment moratorium; relaxing of the Determination on Liquidity Risk Management on cash inflows and outflows for lenders; and reduction of the Capital Conservation buffers to 0% for 24 months to enable the financial sector to expand supply of credit to the economy.

On 15 April, the central bank reduced the policy rate by 100 basis points to 4.25%.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
15 April: SADC Member States have established National Emergency Operations Centres to facilitate coordination of logistics and stockpiling for disasters at the national level. The SADC Pooled Procurement Services for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies is being implemented to provide sustainable availability and access to affordable and effective essential medicine and health commodities, and Member States have been encouraged to utilise this facility for the procurement of the needed supplies for prevention, treatment and control of COVID-19 and any other epidemics.
Budget adjustments
On 1 April, the government launched the Economic Stimulus and Relief Package to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 (8 billion Namibian Dollars, or 4.25 % of GDP), including i) expenditure measures of 2.2 bn for health, wage subsidies, and income grants; and ii) guarantees of up to 2.3 bn to support low interest loans for small and agricultural businesses, and individuals. The government called off the Independence Celebrations and reallocated the corresponding financial outlay to the fight against COVID-19.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
Fast-tracked payment of overdue and undisputed invoices for goods and services provided to GRN to inject about N$800 million to businesses.

A N$500 million Non-agricultural small business loan scheme to be disbursed through the Development Bank of Namibia (DBN) and a N$200 million Agricultural business loan scheme to be disbursed by the Agricultural Bank of Namibia.

Tax-back loan scheme for non-mining corporates capped at N$470million and a tax-back loan scheme for individuals that are tax registered and paying (PAYE) guaranteed by the government to the tune of N$1.1 billion.
Worker and social assistance
On 1 April, the Minister of Finance announced a new grant for people who were struggling as a result of the pandemic. Just over one week later – on Thursday 9 April – he announced details of the once-off Emergency Income Grant of N$750, to be paid to people aged 18-59 who had lost informal livelihoods or were already unemployed. People with work, including all people with formal employment, were excluded, as was anyone who already received one or other social grant. People who had been formally employed but had lost their jobs would be supported through a separate scheme, through Namibia’s Social Security Commission. Applicants for Namibia’s Emergency Income Grant could registered by sending an SMS to a toll-free number and following a set of clear and simple instructions. Applicants did not need to use their own phones but they did need to use a Mobile Telecommunications Company (MTC) phone.

Tax-back loan scheme for tax registered and tax paying (PAYE) employees and self-employed individual persons who have lost income or part thereof.

Taxpayers can borrow an amount equal to 1/12th of their tax payment in the previous tax year, to be repaid after one year. The interest rate will be favorably low at the prime lending rate less 1% on the back of a Government guarantee.

Government will ensure that water points are kept open without a need for water cards during lockdowns, through NamWater and Local Authorities that will subsidize this critical service.

Niger

Tests p/million
183
Confirmed cases
958
Confirmed deaths
65
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 27 March, a State of Health Emergency was declared, with 2-week quarantine of Niamey.

On 13 May, the night curfew, as well as restrictions on religious gatherings, was lifted in Niger.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
A plan has been presented to donors with an estimated cost of USD 600 million (7.4% of GDP), divided into an immediate health response and broader economic and social mitigation.

May 7: This crisis plan was revised, and it is now expected to cost USD 1.5 billion (18.4% of GDP).

14 April: The cost of the riposte plan is estimated at CFAF 597 billion (USD 999 million or 7.6% of GDP). To be fully implemented, the plan requires significant amount of grants and concessional financial support from the international community as it will entail losses of domestic revenue and increases in public expenditure in favor of health and social programs.
Official COVID-19 links

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
15
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
5,69%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
59%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
5,69%

Domestic and external financing
On 14 April, SDR 83.66 million (USD 114.9 million) was provided by the IMF through its Rapid Credit Facility.

Niger is included in the list of 25 nations to which the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has offered a pardon on debt servicing through the Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust. Debt relief of USD 7.72 million has been provided.

On 15 April, the World Bank approved USD 13.95 million to prevent, detect and respond to the threat posed by COVID-19 and strengthen national systems for public health preparedness in Niger.

28 April: The European Union has announced additional support to Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger, of 194 million Euros. This comes after the EU pledged to mobilise 449 million Euros earlier on in April for the same 5 countries

18 May: The EU has granted Niger 31 million Euros as a means to assist against the economic impact of Covid-19 on the country.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
On March 21: The Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) announced the following measures: i) providing XOF 340 billion of additional liquidity made available to the banks by weekly and monthly auctions up to XOF 4750 billion; ii) extending the collateral framework to access the BCEAO's refinancing to include XOF 1,050 billion of bank debt of prequalified 1,700 private companies; iii) setting-up of a framework with the banking system to support firms with repayment difficulties.

On March 25: Further measures include: i) allocation of XOF 25 billion to the trust fund of the West African Development Bank (BOAD), in order to increase the amount of confessional loans to eligible countries to finance urgent investment and equipment expenses; ii) communicating of the special program for refinancing bank credits granted to SMEs; iii) initiating negotiations with firms issuing electronic money to encourage its usage; iv) ensuring adequate provision of banknotes for satisfactory ATM operations.

To promote the use of electronic payment tools the Western Africa Central Bank (BCEAO) is providing more flexible measures to open a mobile money and making transfers between people backed by electronic money free.

As of April 30, the BCEAO launched a special 3-month refinancing window at a fixed rate of 2.5 % for limited amounts of 3-month "Covid-19 T-Bills" to be issued by each WAEMU sovereign to help meet funding needs related to the current pandemic. (Completed 2020-05-08)

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures

15 April: Establishment of removal credit facilities for any importer who wishes for a period of 15 to 90 days, subject to production of a bank guarantee.

On April 27, Heads of states of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) declared a temporary suspension of the WAEMU Growth and Stability Pact setting six convergence criteria, including the 3 % of GDP fiscal deficit rule, to help member-countries cope with the fallout of COVID-19. This temporary suspension will allow member-countries to raise their overall fiscal deficit temporarily and use the additional external support provided by donors in response to COVID-19. The Heads of States’ Declaration sets a clear expectation that fiscal consolidation will resume once the crisis is over.

7 May: A committee with special powers to make resource allocation decisions has been created.
Budget adjustments
To fund the emergency reponse plan, 1 billion CFA (USD 1.6 million) from the national budget will be provided.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
Exemption from VAT for the entire duration of lockdown for interurban land transport.
Postponement of the payment of the second installment tax for the transport sector to May 1, 2020 instead of March 1.
Application of a reduced rate of 10% in terms of VAT in the hotel sector.
Suspension of proceedings for the recovery of taxes and duties for three (3) months, ie until June 30, 2020 for travel agencies.
Suspension of collection of taxes for two (2) months from April 1, 2020 for bars and drinking places and sport and leisure sectors.
Application of a depreciation rate for buildings of 5% instead of 2% to take into account the importance of the capital invested in the hotel sector.

May 7: Tax relief is being discussed with respect to businesses in the worst-impacted sectors within the economy of Niger.
Worker and social assistance
Two months of free utilities for vulnerable households and distribution of food from the strategic reserve will be provided.
Reinforcement of the annual support plan to support vulnerable people (free distribution of food for the most deprived, sale at moderate price, etc.).
Graceful remission of sentence to 1,540 prisoners, this measure concerns the elderly, cases of chronic illness and all those who have less than nine months to serve.

Since 23 April 2020, price controls for essential goods have been implemented for the period of Ramadan.

May 7: The state has provided 2 months of free utilities to vulnerable households

Nigeria

Tests p/million
24
Confirmed cases
10578
Confirmed deaths
299
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 30 March, the President signed the Federal Government’s COVID-19 Regulations of 20203 which declared COVID-19 a dangerous infectious disease. A lockdown is in place in Lagos, Abuja and Ogun.

On 4 May, a gradual phase out of lockdown conditions began, and is expected to take 6 weeks to complete.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
In March, it was estimated that to procure all needed equipment, material and infrastructure over N 120 billion (USD 308 million) would need to be raised.

By 6 April, approval had been given to create a USD 1.39 billion Coronavirus Crisis Intervention Fund to strengthen healthcare infrastructure.
Official COVID-19 links
https://covid19.ncdc.gov.ng/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
28
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
5,01%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
75%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
5,01%

Domestic and external financing
In March, The Central Bank of Nigeria announced an intervention fund of N1.1 trillion (USD 2.5 billion). N1.0 trillion (USD 2.5 billion)will be used to support local manufacturing to boost import substitution, while N100 billion (USD 250 million) will be used to support the health services sector and products. In addition, N900 billion (USD 2.3 billion) will be made available to pharmaceutical companies through loan interventions to re-establish drug manufacturing firms. It is expected that through these interventions, about N3.5 trillion would be injected as stimulus to support the Nigerian economy during this trying time.

In April, Nigeria’s Central Bank launched a drive to raise N120 billion (USD 3 billion) from the private sector to source equipment and infrastructure to fight the pandemic. As of 8 May, N28 billion (USD72 million) had been received under the Private Sector Coalition Against COVID-19 (CACOVID) Fund, domiciled at the CBN and the five COVID-19 donors in the Treasury Single Account (TSA) sub-accounts.

In April, Nigeria asked for USD 2.5 billion from the World Bank and USD 1 billion from the African Development Bank.

As of 16 April, a USD 50 million grant had been approved by the European Union.

As of 28 April, the IMF has allocated a loan to Nigeria of USD 3.4 billion.

Monetary and macrofinancial measures
The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) maintained its monetary policy rate in March but introduced measures, including:
(i) reducing interest rates on all CBN interventions from 9 to 5% and introducing a one-year moratorium on CBN intervention facilities;
(ii) creating a USD 139 million targeted credit facility; and
(iii) liquidity injection of 2.4% of GDP into the banking system to support the health and manufacturing sectors.
Regulatory forbearance was also introduced to restructure loans in impacted sectors.

21 May: The Monetary Policy Committee of Nigeria has rescheduled its original meeting until 28 May, where it will decide on further monetary policy responses to the economic impact of Covid-19.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
31 March: An Economic Sustainability Committee (ESC) has been established, chaired by the Vice President to come up with a plan to turn the current challenges from COVID-19 pandemic to real opportunities for Nigerians by setting the economy on a solid footing.


16 April: Import duty waivers for medicine and medical goods and pharmaceutical firms will be introduced.

On 5 May, The Minister of Finance was told to promptly liaise with the lawmakers to pass a supplementary budget for the utilisation of the funds based on estimated total collection for the year and it must detail the needs submitted by the affected line ministries together with estimated costs. Funds are to be appropriated directly to line ministries and spending units rather than to an intermediary. It is mandated that all collections into the commercial bank accounts should be swept into FGN Sub-Recurrent Account with the CBN. Only the Government Integrated Financial Management Information System (GIFMIS) is permitted to be used in making payment to necessary agencies in accordance with the laws, rules, and regulations, including those relating to the Public Procurement Act (subject to the guidance of the Bureau for Public Procurement).


7 May, the Accountant-General of the Federation had issued eight guidelines needed for the management of the COVID-19 Funds in Nigeria.
Budget adjustments
On 27 March, the Federal Government released a grant of USD 26 million to Lagos State to increase its capacity to respond to COVID-19 outbreak.By 6 April, the government had provided 102.5 billion naira (USD 285 million) to support the healthcare sector. USD 21 million of this was from contingency funds released to Nigeria’s Center for Disease Control to equip, expand and provide personnel to its facilities and laboratories across the country.

By 24 April, announced plans to cut/delay non-essential capital spending by USD 4.4 billion (1 % of GDP).

On 7 April, The House of Representatives, an arm of Nigeria’s National Assembly, passed the Emergency Economic Stimulus Bill to boost Nigerian economy given the debilitating effect of COVID-19.

By 23 April, it was decided in view of the current challenges facing the Federation, and highly uncertain revenue profile in the immediate future, to distribute N661.427 billion only and save N119.550 billion in the Excess Oil Revenue Account.
Transparency, accountability and participation
5 May: The National Assembly asked that funds not be disbursed until after appropriation.

13 May: The Office of the Accountant-General of the Federation must publicise daily, all inflows and outflows for the funds, and the statement must show the source of the outflow. All line ministries were also urged to publish detailed reports of their activities relating to COVID-19 Funds on their websites at the end of every week, while a Monthly Budget Performance Report shall be published on the Open Treasury Portal not later than 14 days following the end of the month. The last condition is that two weeks after the end of the pandemic, a comprehensive report of all receipts and payments shall be published on the OAGF Transparency Portal as well as other government websites, including those of the Federal Ministry of Finance, Budget and National Planning and Secretary to the Government of the Federation and OAGF.

13 May: In Nigeria, iFollowTheMoney will provide online tools for citizens to monitor the implementation of the governmental COVID-19 response, and hope to build momentum for a transparent and inclusive approach, whereby the use of all crisis-related funds and programs would be made public. To date however, the web based plateform has not been updated since 2019.

21 May: Together with the IMF, the authorities have committed to: (i) strengthening the role of the Federal Audit Board in combating corruption and the asset-declaration framework; (ii) fully implementing the risk-based approach to AML/CFT supervision while ensuring the transparency of beneficial ownership of legal persons; (iii) creating specific budget lines to facilitate the tracking and reporting of emergency response expenditures and report funds released and expenditures incurred monthly on the transparency portal (http://opentreasury.gov.ng/); (iv) publishing procurement plans, procurement notices for all emergency response activities—including the name of awarded companies and of beneficial owners—on the Bureau of Public procurement website; and (v) publishing no later than three to six months after the end of the fiscal year the report of an independent audit into the emergency response expenditures and related procurement process, which will be conducted by the Auditor General of the Federation.

Business support and tax relief
Worker and social assistance
End-March: A 3-month moratorium on mobile money.

End-April: Commenced cash transfers to poorest households to cushion effect of the pandemic. Conditional cash transfers for two months have been made available and displaced people will receive two months of food rations. Minister of Humanitarian Affairs, Disaster Management and Social Development, explained that the beneficiaries would be those whose bank account balance is less than N5,000 and who recharge their phones with not more than N100.

End-April: Relief material is being provided to communities around Abuja and school feeding schemes will be sustained.

End-April: The CBN created a N50 billion fund to support households and SMEs affected by COVID-19; introduced credit support for the healthcare sector.

End-April: The Association of Nigerian Electricity Distributors (ANED) has aligned with the federal government to provide a two-month period of free electricity supply to all customers nationwide.

Republic of the Congo

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
611
Confirmed deaths
20
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 1 April, a Public Health Emergency commenced with curfew from 7pm to 6am in the main provinces. As of end April 2020, it was announced that the lockdown of most economic activity would continue on until mid-May 2020.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
By 15 April, the overall cost of the response plan to the COVID-19 epidemic has been estimated at 100 billion XAF (USD 135 million) (1.6% of GDP) to (i) strengthen early detection and surveillance and foster technical and operational coordination within the government; (ii) improve the quality of medical care to infected patients; and (iii) develop effective preventive communication strategies and enhance medical logistic platforms.
Official COVID-19 links
As of 7 April, government websites had not been updated to include COVID-19 responses

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
111
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
3,92%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
50%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
3,92%

Domestic and external financing
The EU, WFP, France are getting together to provide support for the poorest segments of the population with combined support amounting to about 3 billion XAF (USD 5 million) as of now.

On 23 April, the World Bank approved USD 11.3 million in financing from the International Development Association (IDA) to help the Republic of the Congo fight COVID-19 (coronavirus) and respond to public health emergencies.

Congo is included in the list of 25 nations to which the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has offered a pardon on debt servicing through the Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
On March 27, 2020, BEAC announced a set of monetary easing measures including a decrease of the policy rate by 25 bps to 3.25 %, a decrease of the Marginal Lending Facility rate by 100 bps to 5 %, a suspension of absorption operations, an increase of liquidity provision from FCFA 240 to 500 billion (USD 395 to 823 million) , and a widening of the range of private instruments accepted as collateral in monetary operations. The MPC also supported BEAC’s management’s intent to propose to reduce haircuts applicable to private instruments accepted as collateral for refinancing operations, and to postpone by one-year principal repayment of consolidated central bank’s credits to member states, but these possible additional measures are not effective yet. On March 25, 2020, the COBAC informed banks that they can use their capital conservation buffers of 2.5% to absorb pandemic-related losses but requested banks to adopt a restrictive policy with regard to dividend distribution. Discussions are taking place at the country level on whether private companies can have access to the 100 billion XAF fund set up by the President and on simplifying access to refinancing instruments. A guarantee scheme has been set up to help private companies service their banking debts, but no details have been provided on the amounts or conditions.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
Budget adjustments
At 27 March, the government has made USD 1.4 million available to the Ministry of Health.

23 April: The government of Congo has adopted an amended finance bill of CFA 1083 billion against CFA 2175 billion for the initial finance law. The decline in the national budget is correlative to that of fiscal revenues which fell by 58.9%, from CFA864 to CFA355 billion. It is also motivated by the drop in other revenues by 52.69 %, which declined from CFA1228 to CFA581 billion, that of 55.30% of oil revenues which dropped from CFA1188 to CFA531 billion and that of fees and administrative costs which decreased by 49.4%.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
Penalty free extension, till June 19, 2020 for the declaration and payment of the 2020 Business tax
Worker and social assistance
Penalty free extension until March 27 2020 for the payment of the taxes due earlier in the month

Rwanda

Tests p/million
482
Confirmed cases
377
Confirmed deaths
1
Regulatory response and containment strategy
Rwanda had a strict lockdown in place until end-April 2020. On 4 May, lockdown was eased slightly and a curfew imposed from 8 PM to 5 AM. Schools will be closed until September 2020.

12 May: The Minister of Health announced that four CRUZR robots had been tested in treating Covid-19 patients and doctors trained on how to operate them and Rwanda will begin to use humanoid robots at its coronavirus treatment centres to minimise human interaction this week. The robots will be used in monitoring patient's vital signs including temperature, heart rate, blood, and oxygen levels and relay response to doctors and nurses remotely It features include facial recognition capabilities, can enforce proper mask wearing, and deliver food, water and medicine in and out of the wards, according to the Health Ministry.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
As of 7 May, the government’s emergency response plan, including scaled-up health spending, is estimated at about USD 350 million (3.3 % of GDP). USD 25 million of this is for health spending, of which only USD 5 million is available.

3 April: The authorities project thetotal cost of the Pandemic to amount to 3.4% of GDP over the next two years, including both revenue losses and increases in public spending—1.9 and 1.5% of GDP, respectively.

Official COVID-19 links
https://www.rbc.gov.rw/index.php?id=707

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
44
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
8,88%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
6,38%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
8,88%

Domestic and external financing
On 2 April, SDR 80.1 million (USD 104 million) was provided by the IMF through its Rapid Credit Facility.

On 7 April, the World Bank Group approved a USD 14.25 million International Development Association credit in immediate funding to support Rwanda’s COVID-19 Emergency Response project.

By 24 March, the UNDP had provided USD 1.68 million with intentions to mobilise an additional USD 1 million.

Rwanda is included in the list of 25 nations to which the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has offered a pardon on debt servicing through the Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust. Debt relief of USD 10.96 million had been provided by 13 April.

In April, it was announced that all cabinet members, permanent secretaries, Heads of institutions and other senior Government officials shall forfeit one month's salary.

On 4 May a financing agreement was signed with the World Bank worth USD 100 million (RWF 93.1 billion) to support Rwanda’s COVID-19 response in energy. This is part of the World Bank’s existing three-year financing support towards the country’s energy sector, worth USD 375 million.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
Rwanda’s Central Bank announced measures to mitigate the economic impact of Covid-19. These include:
introducing the extended lending facility of roughly $52 million, which commercial banks with liquidity challenges can borrow from at the central bank rate, lowering reserve requirement ratio effective April 1 from 5 to 4% to allow banks more liquidity to support affected businesses, allowing banks to restructure outstanding loans of borrowers facing temporary cash flow challenges arising from the pandemic, and allowing banks to restructure outstanding loans of borrowers facing temporary cash flow challenges arising from the pandemic.

The use of digital channels and contactless mobile payments is being encouraged. Commercial banks have agreed to reduce or eliminate charges on most transactions.

On 30 April, the Central Bank cut the policy rate by 50 basis points to 4.5 %.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
On 30 April, cabinet approved the Social and Economic Recovery Plan to support economic activities affected by COVID-19.
Budget adjustments
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
On 8 April, the Rwanda Revenue Authority announced an extension of the deadlines for submitting tax returns and remitting payment of corporate income tax for financial year 2019 in response to COVID-19.

As of 30 April 2020, Support to firms is envisaged in the form of subsidized loans from commercial banks and is expected to target SMEs and hard-hit sectors such as the hospitality industry. The salaries of top civil servants for the month of April will be redirected to welfare programs. Tax relief measures include the suspension of down payments on outstanding tax for amicable settlement and the softening of enforcement for tax arrears collection. The deadline for filing and paying corporate income tax has been extended, and VAT refunds to SMEs are being fast-tracked. The 30-day maturity period for the public health insurance scheme premium was removed. (Completed 2020-05-08)
Worker and social assistance
As of 30 April 2020, support to vulnerable households takes the form of regular in-kind transfers of basic food stuffs (door-to-door provision of rice, beans, and flour every three days) and cash transfers to casual workers who lost their jobs. Food relief is drawn from the country’s National Strategic Grain Reserve under the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources.

Sao Tome and Principe

Tests p/million
87
Confirmed cases
484
Confirmed deaths
12
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 17 March, a State of Emergency was announced.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
21 May: Fiscal gap associated with the impact of COVID-19 is estimated at USD 17 million (4.2% of GDP); however a contingency plan is costed at USD 3 million, to protecte population from the virus.
Official COVID-19 links

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
79
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
7,45%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
14%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
7,45%

Domestic and external financing
On 2 April, the World Bank approved a USD 2.5 million International Development Association grant to assist the government of Sao Tome and Principe in responding to the threat posed by the COVID-19 pandemic.

In April, UNDP announced a contribution of USD1.85 million to the National COVID-19 pandemic.

Sao Tome and Principe is included in the list of 25 nations to which the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has offered a pardon on debt servicing through the Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust

As of the 21st of April, the IMF has loaned Sao Tome USD 12.29 million as part of its rapid credit facility.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
The Central Bank of São Tomé and Príncipe has launched a series of measures to mitigate the effects of COVID-19, including a drop in the rate of the marginal lending facility from 11% to 9.5% and the reduction of “minimum cash reserves from 18% to 14% in national currency and 21% to 17 % in foreign currency. Reduction in the central bank's key rate (liquidity facility facility fees).

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
Budget adjustments
Transparency, accountability and participation
21 April: The government will issue a decision to publish large public procurement contracts once signed and the ex-post validation of delivery of these contracts, as well as publish monthly COVID-19 related expenditure. In addition, the COVID-19 related spending will be audited after the crisis. Crisis-mitigation measures have been authorised by Parliament, and a revised budget will be sent to Parliament when conditions allow. The authorities will also submit to Parliament a government decree on the revised budget. As part of its support, the IMF has requested budgetary execution and expenditure plans, with COVID-19 related spending, each month.

Business support and tax relief
Support for companies experiencing difficulties due to the COVID 19 pandemic, through tax incentives
30% drop in wages in the indirect administration and business sectors, directly impacted by the drop in income, in order to avoid dismissal, given the drop in activity
Granting of a credit line, guaranteed by the State, to the tourism, hotel, catering, agriculture and processing sectors.
Exemption from default interest and other legal additions to tax and parafiscal debts accumulated during the state of emergency or which, having been accumulated over the previous period, are notified during the state of emergency, for companies
Worker and social assistance
Introduction of mechanisms allowing the payment of water and electricity consumption bills, electronically.
Allocation of compensation to affected workers, the value of which can be supplemented by the employer, to keep the employee and not dismiss him, for the tourism sector.
On 29 March, the government's emergency response plan, including support to approx. 20,000 vulnerable households, started in the form of regular in-kind transfers of basic food stuffs (door-to-door provision of rice, beans, and flour every three days).

Senegal

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
3739
Confirmed deaths
42
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 23 March, a State of Emergency was declared. Senegal has so far refrained from establishing strict containment.

May 11: Starting from Tuesday 12 May 2020, places of worship, markets and other businesses will be reopened, subject to distancing measures and barrier gestures, including the compulsory wearing of a mask and hand washing.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
A strategic health plan to fight against COVID-19 is expected to cost FCFA 70 billion (USD 115 million) to i) enhance testing and treatment capacity, ii) strengthen preventive measures, and iii) intensify communication.

A FORCE COVID-19 fund has been established of up to FCFA 1000 billion (7% of GDP), to be financed by a mix of donor contributions, voluntary donations from the private sector, and the budget.
Official COVID-19 links
https://covid19.sec.gouv.sn/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
48
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
6,15%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
51%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
6,15%

Domestic and external financing
On 13 April, SDR 215.73 million was provided by the IMF through its Rapid Financing Instrument and SDR 107.87 million through the Rapid Credit Facility.

On 2 April, the World Bank Board of Executive Directors approved a USD20 million credit from the International Development Association to support Senegal in its response to the threat of the global COVID-19 pandemic. It complements the additional support provided under the existing Regional Disease Surveillance Systems Enhancement (REDISSE) project to strengthen health systems and disease surveillance as part of the national COVID-19 response plan.

On 7 May 2020, the government has allocated FCFA 71 billion (0.5 % of GDP) to improve testing, treatment, and prevention. This was coupled with an IMF approved emergency funding of USD 442 Million.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
On March 21, the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) announced the following measures: i) providing XOF 340 billion of additional liquidity made available to the banks by weekly and monthly auctions up to XOF 4750 billion; ii) extending the collateral framework to access the BCEAO's refinancing to include XOF 1,050 billion of bank debt of prequalified 1,700 private companies; iii) setting-up of a framework with the banking system to support firms with repayment difficulties.
On March 25, further measures include: i) allocation of XOF 25 billion to the trust fund of the West African Development Bank (BOAD), in order to increase the amount of confessional loans to eligible countries to finance urgent investment and equipment expenses; ii) communicating of the special program for refinancing bank credits granted to SMEs; iii) initiating negotiations with firms issuing electronic money to encourage its usage; iv) ensuring adequate provision of banknotes for satisfactory ATM operations.

In March, to promote the use of electronic payment tools, the Western Africa Central Bank (BCEAO) is providing more flexible measures to open a mobile money and making transfers between people backed by electronic money free.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
In April, a COVID-19 growth and economic watch committee was established.

16 April: Accommodate a widening of the fiscal deficit to 5.6% of GDP, prioritize health spending and containment efforts, and provide targeted support to vulnerable households and firms. Develop a plan to bring the deficit back to at least 3% of GDP once the crisis abates.

On 27 April, heads of states of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) declared a temporary suspension of the WAEMU growth and stability Pact setting six convergence criteria, including the 3 % of GDP fiscal deficit rule, to help member-countries cope with the fallout of the Covid-19 pandemic, allowing member countries to raise fiscal deficits temporarily.
Budget adjustments
(04/04) As part of the Economic and Social Resilience Program 64.4 billion CFA has beeen allocated to cover all the expenses related to the response against COVID-19.

(04/04) Budget cuts on operating expenses and deferred investments; which corresponds to a saving of 159 billion CFA francs. In addition, the government will secure CFA 178 billion to partially cover losses in budget revenue caused by the crisis.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
The government intends to adopt tax measures, providing some general tax relief and targeted support to the most affected sectors (hotels, restaurants, transport and culture).

CFA 302 billion will be spent on payment due to suppliers to the state.

CFA 100 billion will be specifically dedicated to the direct support of the sectors of the economy hardest hit by the crisis, in particular transport, hotels, but also agriculture. Similarly, in relation to the financial sector, the State will set up a financing mechanism up to 200 billion, accessible to the affected companies, according to a streamlined procedure.

The State will reimburse the VAT credits in shortened time frames to return cash to businesses. Tax rebates and suspensions will be granted to companies which undertake to keep their workers in activity for the duration of the crisis, or to pay more than 70% of the wages of employees laid off during this period.

Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises, and companies operating in the sectors most affected by the pandemic, in particular tourism, catering, hotels, transport, education, culture and the press will benefit from a deferral of taxes until July 15, 2020.

There will be an extension of the deadline for payment of the suspended VAT collected by customs and tax services from 12 to 24 months; which represents a deferral of payment of 15 billion on the year 2020.

The State will suspend the collection of tax and customs debts from the companies most affected by COVID-19. In return, they will have to undertake to maintain the salaries of their employees or to pay more than 70% of the wages of employees laid off.
Worker and social assistance
By 30 April, it was announced that the State will cover the following expenses:
CFA 15.5 billion, for the payment of electricity bills of households subscribing to the social bracket, for a two-month period; or approximately 975,522 households;
CFA 3 billion, to cover the water bills of 670,000 households subscribed to the social band, for a two-month period;
CFA 69 billion, instead of the 50 billion initially planned, for the purchase of food for the benefit of one million eligible households;
CFA 12.5 billion, to help the diaspora.

The government is supplementing nurses' salaries.

Seychelles

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
11
Confirmed deaths
Regulatory response and containment strategy
A lockdown has been in place since 8 April and is due to end on 29 April.

7 May: While lockdown restrictions have eased slightly, travel bans on visitors still exist, with school closures remaining in place in the Seychelles.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
R123 million (USD 7.2 million or 0.45% of GDP) has been proposed to finance COVID-19 related healthcare and procurement.
Official COVID-19 links
http://www.health.gov.sc/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
1077
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
10%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
2,08%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
10%

Domestic and external financing
end-March: The budget amendment will be financed by a considerable amount of debt. The Central Bank will offer the Government an advance at 0% interest, in view of the force majeure situation. Together with the Central Bank, a Bond will be put on the market. Government will also keep on publishing its weekly Treasury bills to finance its short-term expenses, and presence in the financial market.

21 May: The government intends to substantially increase external borrowing in 2020 to finance the wide financing gap opened by the COVID-19 pandemic without straining the domestic financial sector.

end-April: USD 7 million will be taken from the World Bank under the ‘Catastrophe Deferred Drawdown’, or ‘Cat DDO’, signed in 2013. This is a ‘contingent credit line’ that allows Seychelles to have immediate liquidity, following a disaster. Seychelles qualifies for a loan equivalent to 0.1% our GDP, which amounts to approximately 2.5 million American dollars. They will also take a facility of approximately USD 47 million with the World Bank under other products offered by the bank.

end-April: Seychelles will receive 50% of its IMF SDR quota, which is equivalent to USD 15.4 million

end-April: Seychelles will tap into its USD 9 million budgetary support facility with the AfDB.

8 May: The Seychelles will now have access to the full IMF SDR quota of SDR 22.9 million (or, USD 31.2 million).

21 May: the government will seek another USD 40 million of external budget support. The government also plans to resort to the Central Bank of Seychelles (CBS) advances (SCR250 million, half of the maximum amount stipulated in the CBS Act) and issuances of government securities to commercial banks and other private sector (about 2.25% of GDP).
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
The Central Bank of Seychelles (CBS) reduced the policy rate by 100 bps to 4 % on March 23. On the same day, it announced that a credit facility of approximately $36 million will be set up to assist commercial banks with emergency relief measures to assist businesses and individuals struggling with the financial impact of the pandemic. The CBS also announced that commercial banks, the Development Bank of Seychelles (DBS) and the Seychelles Credit Union have agreed to consider a moratorium of six months on the repayment of principal and interest on loans to assist businesses in impacted sectors. The six-month moratorium may also apply to individuals. Through its communication, the CBS reassured that it will continue to monitor potential market stress and any emerging risks to the financial sector and the economy, and that it stands ready to take appropriate actions to ensure that the local banking system remains financially and operationally resilient to support the economy.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
15 April: SADC Member States have established National Emergency Operations Centres to facilitate coordination of logistics and stockpiling for disasters at the national level. The SADC Pooled Procurement Services for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies is being implemented to provide sustainable availability and access to affordable and effective essential medicine and health commodities, and Member States have been encouraged to utilise this facility for the procurement of the needed supplies for prevention, treatment and control of COVID-19 and any other epidemics.

7 May: A committee with special powers to make resource allocation decisions has been created.
Budget adjustments
An amended budget was tabled on 7 April 2020 in response to COVID-19. Some of the highlights include:
A 24% reduction in tax collection, compared to what had been projected in the 2020 budget and a fiscal primary deficit of negative 14%.
The decision to remove VAT on food which was supposed to take effect as from April 2020, will be postponed.
All new recruitment in government will be frozen with immediate effect. This freeze will also apply to public enterprises. Payment of allowances for all ‘Information Officers’ will be suspended. This will result in a savings on salaries.
Remunerations for board members, which had increased in the budget in January 2020, for agencies covered in the budget, and for public enterprise boards, which had increased last year, will also be reduced.
Reduce all votes and allowances for overseas travel by 100%.
A 75% reduction in the Entertainment Budget
Reduce all budgets associated with the organisation of workshops and conferences
25% reduction in all printing and stationery budgets
50% reduction in all minor capitals budgets
Increase to Capital Projects because of the expected impact of devaluation on foreign exchange rates, which will affect the cost of projects, particularly those financed by loans.
An increase of R 50.6 million is being proposed for the Health Sector in this amendment. This will cover an isolation centre and increase quarantine capacity.
Provisions for the nurses and health care assistants’ schemes are revised, and will take effect as from July 2020. A sum of R 13.68 million is being proposed for this.
A sum of R60 million is being proposed under the Contingency vote to cover the costs related to the procurement of medicine and equipment, and for operations and logistics for prevention measures against Covid-19.
A temporary restriction on vehicle importations to save foreign reserves for critical purchases
Transparency, accountability and participation
25 May: To ensure transparency of emergency fiscal spending, the government will submit monthly reports of the emergency spending on wage subsidies, health, and social spending to the Finance and Public Accounts Committee of the National Assembly and make such reports public within three months. Furthermore, an independent audit on emergency spending and related procurement processes will be conducted and the audit report will also be published.

Business support and tax relief
The postponement of all payments that were due by March 2020 to September 2020 and the postponement of Corporate Social Responsibility, Tourism Marketing Tax, Business Tax and taxes on Non-Monetary Benefits Income until September 2020.
Worker and social assistance
R1,090,531,200.00 has proposed in the 2020 budget amendment to guarantee salaries. Salaries will be guaranteed for three months. However provision has been made to cover salaries for at least six months. Assistance will be limited to an individual ceiling of R30,000.00. This assistance will also cover foreign workers. This assistance will also cover self-employed people who have no employees, for example, taxi operators.

R 30 million for the Agency for Social Protection (ASP) to ensure that other individuals in need are also assisted. ASP will also assist individuals in the informal sector. This applies mainly to businesses operating without a licence or permit, or even those who are not paying their taxes. An additional sum of R 10 million was also proposed for the Unemployment Relief Scheme.

11 May: Seychelles' government will not cover the salaries of foreign workers after 1 July.

Sierra Leone

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
865
Confirmed deaths
46
Regulatory response and containment strategy
A state of emergency has been declared.

May 6: A partial lockdown, originally expected to last 14 days from April 11, has been extended indefinitely.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
The Government of Sierra Leone has developed different scenarios with varied financing gaps. Under scenario 1 the financing gap is estimated at USD 161.3 million, under scenario 2 it is USD 199.7 million. Under worst-case scenario 3, USD 246.9 million.
Official COVID-19 links
https://mohs.gov.sl/covid-19/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
27
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
7,91%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
42%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
7,91%

Domestic and external financing
On 2 April, the World Bank approved a USD7.5 million International Development Association (IDA) grant to help Sierra Leone respond to the threat posed by the coronavirus outbreak and strengthen national systems for public health preparedness. The funds will fill critical financing gaps that have been identified due to the new emergency preparedness and response needs created by the global pandemic.

Sierra Leone is included in the list of 25 nations to which the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has offered a pardon on debt servicing through the Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust.

The Bank of Sierra Leone will also provide USD 50 million to the Government's response plan.

As of 13 April, USD 18.28 million's worth of debt relief was offered to Sierra Leone through the IMF's Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
The central bank held an emergency Monetary Policy Committee meeting on March 18. They decided to: (i) reduce the monetary policy rate by 150 bps from 16.5 % to 15 %; (ii) create a special credit facility (Le 500 billion) to support production, procurement and distribution of essential goods (modalities discussed with bankers’ association on March 20 but not yet announced); and (iii) extend the reserve requirement maintenance period from 14 to 28 days to ease tight liquidity.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
Budget adjustments
The Government of Sierra Leone developed a Quick Action Economic Response Programme (QAERP) to address the fiscal, economic and health challenges. The QAERP estimates domestic revenue shortfalls of 9-15%.

Through the Government's 2020 budget, USD 16.1 million, representing 10% of resources is committed. However, this commitment is at risk as funding the budget is largely dependent on the domestic revenue situation.

The Government has earmarked Le. 100 billion (USD10 million) for the implementation of the COVID-19 Contingency Plan. This would need to be augmented if a high number of cases emerge in-country, leading to extrabudgetary expenditures across key sectors, such as health, education and social protection.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
Worker and social assistance
On April 22, the government announced its plans to include incentives for healthcare workers (including a risk allowance, life insurance and compensation for living expenses when in-field) as part of the health response under development. (Completed 2020-05-08)

Somalia

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
2023
Confirmed deaths
79
Regulatory response and containment strategy
14 May: An evening curfew, as well as various other restrictions of movement, were imposed in Somalia and are expected to be in effect indefinitely.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
Ministry of Health estimates USD 200 million is needed to prevent, rapidly detect and effectively respond to any COVID-19 outbreak to reduce morbidity and mortality in the country.
Official COVID-19 links
http://moh.gov.so/en/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)

Domestic and external financing
14 May: The EU is providing 48 million Euros to Somalia in order to support health facilities and epidemic control efforts in the country.

15 May: The World Bank has approved a USD 137.5 million International Development Association grant in order to assist with Somalia's response to Covid-19.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
30 April 2020: the Central Bank is releasing funding-for-lending support for medium and small enterprises through commercial banks., initially for USD 2.9 million with more in the pipeline. The Central Bank is also encouraging commercial banks to use excess liquidity to support lending and employ existing CBRs to support remittance inflows.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
Budget adjustments
The Government with the support of international partnership have launch a massive fiscal stimulus plan to boost the economy and contain the economic effects of the COVID-19.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
Quick financial and material injection is being planned to small and medium enterprises in urban and rural areas hosting large numbers of IDPs and migrants to avert closure of private sector businesses and laying off workers through grants, loans, micro-credit or in-kind. UNIDO is exploring how to adapt its credit line for SMEs to target value chains most disrupted by COVID-19.

Effective April 15, the Somalia government has introduced a three-month tax holiday on basic commodities, and reduced consumption tax on some additional goods by up to 50%.
Worker and social assistance
UN agencies are supporting government to reach the most vulnerable through a variety of rural and urban safety-nets to address food insecurity and loss of income, through the Safety Net for Human Capital Project (SNHCP) financed by the World Bank. Whenever possible, transfers are provided through cash allowing linkages to local suppliers and financial service providers building ecosystem of locally sources solutions. WFP is already accelerating registration of people in the field and planning to expand transfers in the coming weeks for the urban safety net.

The Government of Somalia with support of UN agencies is working to ensure ongoing and planned infrastructure work continues, with extra protective measures implemented for construction teams. The aim is to ensure continued employment for those hired under these operations so as to avoid further contributing to the anticipated economic downturn.

South Africa

Tests p/million
1467
Confirmed cases
34357
Confirmed deaths
705
Regulatory response and containment strategy
A State of National Disaster has been declared. This has set in motion varied processes to implement an integrated and co-ordinated disaster mechanism, which will focus on preventing and reducing the outbreak of the virus across the country. A nationwide lockdown began on 26 March and was extended on 9 April to 30 April.

On May 1, a less stringent lockdown was placed on South Africa, with some lockdown regulations being lifted across key sectors across the economy.

On May 13, a potential relaxation of the lockdown was announced effective June 1 allowing some additional economic activities to take place, as well as a reduction of restrictions outside of the large metropolitan areas.

COVID-19: expected financing requirement
On 21 April, the response to COVID-19 was announced to cost ZAR 500 billion (USD 26 billion) (10% of GDP).

21 May: The South African government has requested a rapid financing instrument (RFI) amounting to USD 4.2 billion, subject to the IMF Executive Board's discussion and decision.
Official COVID-19 links
https://sacoronavirus.co.za/

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
576
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
13%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
7,75%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
13%

Domestic and external financing
A solidarity fund has been established to help combat the spread of the virus, the government provided approximately USD 8 million as seed capital. https://www.solidarityfund.co.za/

National Treasury has set up an email address where members of the public can send suggestions on how best National Treasury can deal with the COVID-19 virus. This is in support of efforts by the rest of government to ensure interaction with members of the public on the virus.

South Africa's president and his cabinet will take a 33% pay cut for the next three months to contribute to the Solidarity Fund.

South Africa's private sector had provided over USD 200 million to the Solidarity Fund.

South Africa will take up a USD 1 billion loan from the New Development Bank (NDB) - formerly known as the Brics Development Bank - to fight the Covid-19 pandemic. It is expected to borrow another USD 1 billion later this year to help stimulate the economy after the downturn caused by the pandemic and lockdown.

A facility of USD 60 million is being considered from the World Bank and the government has approached the IMF and AfDB.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
The South African Reserve Bank cut the repo rate initially by 100 basis points and an additional 100 bps on 13 April.

end-April: The Bank has also provided additional liquidity to the financial system. This includes purchasing of government bonds in the secondary market.

In April, a reduction in capital requirement was announced, injecting R30.7 billion into the economy, and a reduction in liquidity requirements.

12 May: The Reserve Bank bought more than R11bn in government debt securities in April as part of a bond-buying programme to boost liquidity in financial markets that are reeling from the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic.

21 May: The South African Reserve Bank has, once again, cut the repo rate from 4.25% to 3.75% in an attempt to bolster economic activity in South Africa.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
30 March: The Minister of Finance in terms of the Municipal Finance Management Act 56 of 2003 (MFMA) issued a conditional Exemption Notice in order to ensure effective and efficient service delivery and to minimize any potential delay in decision making. The conditional Exemption Notice will also facilitate and enable legislative processes during the period of the national state of disaster. The Minister also, in terms of section 92 of the Public Finance Management Act (PFMA), 1999 (Act No.1 of 1999), issued an Exemption Notice to institutions to which this Act applies to ensure effective financial management and to minimize any possible noncompliance with the PFMA.

30 March: National Treasury has issued an Instruction Note 8 of 2019/20 applicable to Public Finance Management Act (PFMA) institutions and a Municipal Finance Management Act (MFMA) Circular 100 for municipalities and municipal entities, to speed up the procurement of goods/commodities required to reduce and control the spread of the virus. This is in support of effective and efficient service delivery and to curb the possible abuse of Supply Chain Management (SCM) systems. The Instruction Note and the Circular also list prices of goods/commodities in efforts to curb opportunistic use of this disaster to drive profit margins.

15 April: SADC Member States have established National Emergency Operations Centres to facilitate coordination of logistics and stockpiling for disasters at the national level. The SADC Pooled Procurement Services for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies is being implemented to provide sustainable availability and access to affordable and effective essential medicine and health commodities, and Member States have been encouraged to utilise this facility for the procurement of the needed supplies for prevention, treatment and control of COVID-19 and any other epidemics

15 April: Due to the shortage of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to curb the spread of COVID-19, the National Treasury in support of the Department of Trade, Industry, and Competition (DTIC) called on all compliant, particularly local, suppliers providing these commodities to send details of availability to covid19supplies@businessresponsecovid19.co.za.
Budget adjustments
In a cabinet briefing on 16 March, Minister of Finance Tito Mboweni said the government was ready to do two things to finance the proposed fiscal measures. First, it could release money from the National Disaster Fund. Although he did not provide a figure, sources said R5 billion could be made available. Second, the government could set aside further funding, but only if it reduced spending in other areas. In other words, there would be no fiscal stimulus. Government would shift spending within the current austerity envelope that already involves cuts of R261 billion over the next three years.

On 14 April, Minister Mboweni noted the fiscal framework will be revised to include the following:
Putting forward clear estimates of the additional health care costs that will be needed
Reprioritising unnecessary expenditure towards these health care costs
The impact of slowdown on our projections for revenue
A clear plan to restore fiscal sustainability and limit the pace of debt accumulation and the growth of contingent liabilities
Supported by an economic recovery plan (structural reforms) and a set of reforms within the fiscal system e.g. clarity on road tolling, reforming the road accident fund in order to unlock that revenue for the fiscus and core government priorities, and consolidation of public entities and reviewing portfolio of state-owned enterprises.

An adjustments budget based on the stimulus package announced on 21 April will be tabled.
Transparency, accountability and participation
In South Africa, the International Budget Partnership is providing data to residents of informal settlements in the major metropolitan centers so they can provide real-time feedback about government services during the pandemic, such as the disinfection of public facilities.

National Treasury has set up an email address where members of the public can send suggestions on how best National Treasury can deal with the COVID-19 virus. This is in support of efforts by the rest of government to ensure interaction with members of the public on the virus.

By 15 April, the National Treasury has provided opportunities for public input into the tax relief proposals, an extension of the period for public comment on two draft Bills relating to municipal fiscal powers, and input on public procurement.

Business support and tax relief
The Minister of Finance announced the following exceptional tax measures on 23 March 2020:
The South African Revenue Service will accelerate the payment of employment tax incentive reimbursements from twice a year to monthly to get cash into the hands of compliant employers as soon as possible;
Tax compliant businesses with a turnover of R50 million or less will be allowed to delay 20% of their employees’ tax liabilities over the next four months and a portion of their provisional corporate income tax payments without penalties or interest over the next six months. This intervention is expected to assist 75 000 small and medium term enterprises.

The government will assist companies facing distress through the R180-billion surplus Unemployment Insurance Fund and special programs from the Industrial Development Corporation. Funds will be available to assist SMEs under stress, mainly in the tourism and hospitality sectors.

On 21 April, 100bn was announced to support companies and protect jobs, seemingly in addition to the R40bn already set aside by the Unemployment Insurance Fund for income support payments. Tax relief to assist corporates could also total R70bn. Authorities will roll out a R200bn loan guarantee scheme for companies with turnover of less than R300 million a year in partnership with the major banks (and SARB).

On 1 May 2020, The National Treasury issued a revised Draft Disaster Management Tax Bill which aims to aid both individuals and businesses.
Worker and social assistance
On 21 April, it was announced that R50bn has been allocated to relieve social distress with higher social grants for six months (R500 increase in child care grants and R250 increase of all other grants) as well as a new R350 per month COVID-19 Social Relief of Distress grant to the unemployed (who receive no other government support). It was also announced that municipalities will receive substantial added financing to improve water infrastructure, sanitation of transportation as well as food and housing provision to the homeless.

Workers who will be affected by the lockdown or become ill during the outbreak will receive government assistance. The Unemployment Insurance Fund (UIF) will compensate affected workers through a new “National Disaster Benefit” and existing Illness, Reduced Work Time and Unemployment Benefits.The benefit will be at a flat rate equal to the minimum wage USD200 per employee for the duration of the shutdown or a maximum period of 3 months, whichever period is the shortest.

On 1 May 2020, The National Treasury issued a revised Draft Disaster Management Tax Bill which aims to aid both individuals and businesses.

South Sudan

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
994
Confirmed deaths
10
Regulatory response and containment strategy
On 30 April, the governent in South Sudan announced a travel ban, along with a mandatory 14-day quarantine set to end by the middle of May. By 11 May, containment measures were relaxed despite growing number of cases, including resumption of regional flights and reopening of markets, shops and bars.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
Official COVID-19 links

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)

Domestic and external financing
Euro 5 million will be mobilised by the EU in South Sudan to increase health system capacity to respond to the pandemic, including USD 1 million to set-up a laboratory for testing COVID-19 as well as other infectious diseases.

The World Bank has allocated USD 7.6 million to help manage the spread of coronavirus in South Sudan. The funds under the Provision of Essential Health Services Project will facilitate and strengthen the country’s national systems for public health preparedness.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
Budget adjustments
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
Worker and social assistance
In March, the Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs announced that it will, in collaboration with the World Food Program, start a door-to-door food distribution in South Sudan.

Sudan

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
5173
Confirmed deaths
298
Regulatory response and containment strategy
A State of Health Emergency has been declared. The government declared a full curfew in the state of Khartoum starting Saturday, April 18 for three weeks.

9 May: The authorities have extended the lockdown until 19 May.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
According to a Multi-hazard Emergency Health Preparedness plan prepared with the WHO, the financial needs to cope with COVID-19 related health care is about USD 100 million. To mitigate the negative impact on households and enterprises, the government may need USD1.5 billion in three months.

May 7: An update to the estimate of financing needs of Sudan place the package needed at close to USD 150 Million, as opposed to the original package estimated at USD 100 Million.
Official COVID-19 links

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
58
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
11%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
74%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
11%

Domestic and external financing
A national campaign ‘Stand Up for Sudan Initiative' has been launched.

On 9 April, the domestic private sector pledged to contribute USD2 million to help the government and the UN and international partners will donate USD 9 million. The US government also announced a USD 8 million donation to Sudan. The Islamic Development Bank provided USD10 million to Sudan.

On April 9, the Islamic Development Bank was also reported to provide USD 35 million to Sudan, while the World Bank has also announced a package of USD 35 Million from its Headquarters based trust funds.

27 April: The European Union, through the Emergency Trust Fund for Africa (EUTF) , provided EUR 10 million ( USD11 million) to support COVID-19 preparedness. The funds will be used to address critical shortcomings in epidemic preparedness and will be implemented by the World Health Organisation (WHO).

21 May: The European Union announced a support package of EUR 70 Million (USD 76 million).
Monetary and macrofinancial measures

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures

7 May: A committee with special powers to make resource allocation decisions has been created.
Budget adjustments
The government has reallocated USD 3 million towards COVID-19 healthcare.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
The government is preparing to freeze loan repayment and services for three months to ease the pressure on private sector.

A decree has been issued allocating 10% of imports’ revenues to fund the costs of medicine imports and the production inputs of the local factories.
Worker and social assistance
A Training Layoff scheme, which suspends the employment relationship and pays the worker 75% of the wage, has been proposed.

Ministry of Labour and Social Development has proposed a USD110 million program to support 30% of the population for one month, through increasing direct cash transfer, providing unemployment benefits and delivering basic food baskets to poor families at discounted prices.

Public and private sectors, employees are working half time with full payments and in-kind support to the public sector was provided through the Finance Ministry's Poverty Reduction Unit.

Tanzania

Tests p/million
Confirmed cases
509
Confirmed deaths
21
Regulatory response and containment strategy
The government has adopted limited containment measures.

May 7: Although most government operations continue as normal, travel restrictions on flights have come into place, whilst land-based travel remains unrestricted.

May 11: The Tanzanian government has relaxed some restrictions on international flights. The relaxation allows the following categories of flights: humanitarian aid, medical and relief flights, technical landings where passengers do not disembark and other safety-related operations.

21 May: Authorities announced plans to reopen schools and resume sport activities, starting 1 June.
COVID-19: expected financing requirement
Official COVID-19 links
https://www.moh.go.tz/en/covid-19-info

Government health expenditure p/capita (PPP USD) (2017)
45
Government health expenditure of government expenditure (2017)
9,52%
Out-of-pocket expenditure of total health expenditure (2017)
22%
External health expenditure of health expenditure (2017)
9,52%

Domestic and external financing
On 10 April, Barrick Gold, the world’s second-largest gold miner, announced that Twiga Minerals Corporation, its joint venture with the Tanzanian government, launched a support program to assist the east African country in combating and containing the covid-19 pandemic. It is contributing USD 1.7 million in the form of critical equipment and expertise to help prevent the spread of the virus.
Monetary and macrofinancial measures
17 May: The central bank lowered the statutory minimum reserves requirements for commercial banks to 6% from 7%, effective 8 June, to provide additional liquidity to banks. The discount rate for banks has also been cut from 9% to 7%, to cushion the economy from the effects of the COVID-19 crisis.

Amendments to PFM practices, policies and procedures
15 April: SADC Member States have established National Emergency Operations Centres to facilitate coordination of logistics and stockpiling for disasters at the national level. The SADC Pooled Procurement Services for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies is being implemented to provide sustainable availability and access to affordable and effective essential medicine and health commodities, and Member States have been encouraged to utilise this facility for the procurement of the needed supplies for prevention, treatment and control of COVID-19 and any other epidemics.
Budget adjustments
The Minister of Finance and Planning has directed senior officials in the Ministry of Finance and Planning to partner with the Bank of Tanzania (BoT) to look at the potential effects of Corona on the economy and how to deal with them.

As of 7 May 2020, The government released USD 302 million for health spending. The funds come from the reprioritisation of budget expenditure and cancelling and postponing some budgeted spending such as foreign travel and training; national ceremonies; and procurement of vehicles.
Transparency, accountability and participation

Business support and tax relief
To support the private sector the government has expedited the payment of verified expenditure arrears giving priority to affected SMEs, paying US$376 million over the past two months. The government has granted VAT and customs exemptions to additional medical items requested by the Ministry of Health.
Worker and social assistance

Togo

Tests p/million
339
Confirmed cases
443
Confirmed deaths
13
Regulatory response and containment strategy
At the beginning of April, a State of Health Emergency was declared for 3 months.

19 May: Togo has implemented further lockdown regualtions to restrict international travel.