This keynote paper was developed as part of the policy dialogue on ‘Opportunities for coordinating the integration of gender and climate change into budgeting and finance’. Gender inequality and climate change are internationally recognised cross-sectoral concerns that have major implications for sustainable development and human wellbeing. For both gender and climate change, there are some sources of dedicated finance, often used for studies, piloting and capacity building. But most gender equality and climate change adaptation and mitigation are delivered through programmes of expenditure that contribute to routine public services and to development. Effecting planning and delivery of gender and climate expenditure may therefore require ‘double mainstreaming’ of both gender and climate into routine budgeting.