In sub-Saharan Africa, 80% of the population rely on agriculture for their livelihoods and they do so with low levels of agricultural productivity. Agriculture spending is one of the most vital instruments to promote growth and alleviate poverty. The 2003 Maputo Declaration on Agriculture and Food Security calls for 10% of national budget allocation to agricultural development, which for the vast majority of countries is yet to be met. While it is important to assess whether or not poor agricultural outcomes are explained by under-investment, it is equally and perhaps more important to assess whether agricultural funds are being utilised effectively and efficiently. We bring together officials from agriculture and finance ministries to examine ways to improve public spending, within budget constraints to increase agricultural productivity, improve efficiency, and contribute to poverty reduction and economic growth.